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        1. 中國取名字四大忌諱,你的名字有沒有犯忌?
          趣歷史 2018-01-03 16:41:47

            古代名字忌諱在中國古代社會中非常普遍和重要。中國古代由于宗法制的影響,在取名字的時候都會有所避諱。講究“為親者諱”,“為賢者諱”,“為尊者諱”。在言談和書寫時,一律會回避君父的名字。也不能用他們的名字來取名。直到現在仍然有部分人在取名時盡量不與父輩名字沖突。由于避諱的影響,中國人認為稱呼長輩名字是非常不禮貌的行為。

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            避諱制度起源于周代,成熟于秦漢,盛行于隋唐以后,宋朝時期最為嚴格,一直到民國時期才廢除避諱制度。諱則是名字的意思,這是專指“帝王”、“圣人”、“長官”及“尊長者”的名字。人們在說話、寫作時應回避這些名字,不能亂說亂寫,這就叫避諱。《左傳·桓公六年》:“周人以諱事神。名終將諱之。”避諱在中國古代是人人需懂的一門學問,哪怕是不認識字的平民百姓,也會引來懲罰甚至殺頭之禍。

            古代社會對于名字忌諱共分國諱、家諱、圣人之諱、憲諱四種下面略作介紹。

            1.國諱:國諱中通常指的是皇帝及其父祖的名諱,甚至包括皇后、太后,還有皇帝的字號,前代皇帝的字號、謚號、生肖、陵寢等,在平時說話、寫作時都要注意,特別是給皇帝寫奏折和外交談判時更重要。如果冒犯了國諱,便屬十惡不赦中的大不敬之罪是要殺頭的。

            2.家諱:家諱僅限于家族內部,家族避三代以內的祖先之名,外人與其交往時也應當遵守以示尊重。

            3.圣人之諱:簡稱圣諱,像圣人的名字如“黃帝”、“周公”、“孔子”之名在漢以后大部分朝代都要避的。

            4.憲諱:指下屬官員避諱長官名諱,著名的“只許州官放火,不許百姓點燈”就是憲諱故事。

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