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        1. 為啥萬歷皇帝連續28年不上朝:國家卻安然無恙

           萬歷皇帝朱翊鈞明穆宗的第三子。隆慶六年,穆宗駕崩,年僅10歲的朱翊鈞即位,第二年改年號為萬歷。從1572年到1620年,萬歷做了48年的皇帝。令世人嘩然的是,在這48年中,萬歷皇帝連續28年不上朝。

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            于是有人說,萬歷皇帝朱翊鈞是歷史上最懶惰的皇帝!28年不理政事!其實不是的,把這一切歸咎于懶惰,是不對的。如果萬歷帝是因為懶而荒于國事,那他在位前期種種勵精圖治親力親為的現象又作何解釋?萬歷皇帝一生中有三個得力助手:慈圣皇太后馮保張居正

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            慈圣皇太后有著仁慈寬厚的母愛,萬歷皇帝對她十分尊重,偶爾她會參與政務,輔佐萬歷。馮保,萬歷叫他“大保”,是萬歷皇帝的得力助手,也是他從小到大的一個伴侶。馮保大多時候擔任的是管理監督皇帝生活上的事務的一個角色,比如小皇帝表現不好的時候,他會上報給皇太后。對萬歷影響最大的,是張居正。作為萬歷皇帝的第一嚴師,張居正做到了極致。在萬歷即位以后,政治上的事多半由張居正和他一起處理,正是這種和諧的君臣關系,帶來了十年社會穩定經濟繁榮的“萬歷中興”。

            萬歷對張居正形成了極大的依賴感,以至于張居正死后,他無所適從,開始了怠政。這是一個原因。但不是最主要的。萬歷怠政二十八年,最大的原因是他對文官集團的徹底失望,因為失望,才奮力抵抗和排斥。明代的文官,大都以謀私利為己任。大多數文官的態度是,只要在大是大非上站對位置,平時收一些小恩小惠,無傷大雅。關鍵是文官集團權力很大。國本之爭,是壓垮駱駝的最后一根稻草。從這以后萬歷再也不與文官集團共事。

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            那么,為何這近30年間依然社會穩定,內戰外戰全勝?其實說是怠政,不如說是躲避文官。不上朝是為了眼不見心不煩,并不代表不理政事。相反地,這反而在一定程度上提高了行政效率,萬歷皇帝可以更加專心地處理國事。這就是為什么萬歷后期,還有“萬歷三大征”這樣的功績。內有平定蒙古人叛亂的寧夏之役,外有抗擊日本的朝鮮之役。可悲的是,萬歷末期,文官集團越來越囂張,發生了內亂,朝廷支離破碎。女真族趁虛而入,明朝的氣數將盡。

            所以,這就是為什么大多數人都在說萬歷皇帝是千古罪人時,也有人說,萬歷皇帝是千古一帝。他才華橫溢,精明武斷,卻有著常人不能理解的痛苦,只能留給世人一個蒼涼的背影。

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