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        1. 為什么說長平之戰是歷史上最慘烈的戰爭?
          趣歷史 2017-08-31 16:29:30

            古代戰爭都是以冷兵器為主,而冷兵器時代的交鋒都是肉搏戰,極其殘酷。縱觀整個古代歷史之中,規模最大、場面最慘烈的戰爭一定是戰國時期的長平之戰,此戰之后,戰敗方趙國被坑殺40萬將士,而戰勝方秦國也同樣付出了20萬以上將士的傷亡。那么,此戰當時有多慘烈,史書上都是一筆帶過,沒有詳細描述,所以對于此戰人們僅僅停留在想象中。

            此戰是發生在公元前262年,當時秦國攻陷了大片韓國領土,韓國地方長官不但不降,還把上黨郡送給了趙國。當時趙國的平陽君趙豹認為,上黨郡絕對不能要,否則將會遭到秦國的瘋狂報復,而平原君趙勝卻認為,白給的為何不要,要知道即使出動百萬大軍也不一定就能攻下一座城池,所以上黨郡一定要接受。

          1.jpg

          網絡配圖

            趙孝成王最后采納了平原君趙勝的建議,并派他去接受平原君,由此拉開了長平之戰的序幕。戰爭初期雙方對陣將來是趙國的老將廉頗和秦國的王龁,老將廉頗從一開始就采取守勢,所以雙方打的一直是持久戰。后來,秦國丞相范雎利用反間計,讓趙孝成王把廉頗撤掉,換上了紙上談兵趙括,而此時秦國也偷偷把主將換成了戰神白起

            趙括一上任,就一改廉頗的作戰方針,采取主動出擊的策略,而白起則命令秦軍佯裝戰敗潰退,最后,白起把趙軍引到預先埋伏好的地方,派出精兵二萬五千人切斷趙軍的后路,令派五千騎兵,直沖趙軍大營,把四十萬趙軍切成兩段。趙括這時候才知中計,只好筑起營壘堅守,等待救兵。秦國又發兵切斷趙國救兵和運糧的道路。

            趙括的軍隊在內無糧草,外無救兵的情況下,堅守了四十多天,將士叫苦連天,無心作戰。趙括本想帶兵突圍,結果被秦軍亂箭射死,趙軍在群龍無首的情況下紛紛投降。白起說:“趙國士兵反復無常,不如全部殺掉,以絕后患”。于是白起用欺騙的手段,把趙國四十萬將士活埋。

            那么,白起是如何坑殺這40萬趙國降軍的,要知道,是40萬人,如果坑殺,那要挖多大個坑,所以對于此事歷史學家一直爭論不休,懷疑其真實性。但是在1995年,5月12號,對于此戰的真相有了重大發現,當時在山西高平城西北一個叫永祿村的地方,村民挖出了大量森森白骨,專家趕到后,確定這就是2000多年前,白起坑殺趙軍的現場。

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          網絡配圖

            隨著挖掘工作的展開,專家發現,這些趙軍尸骨重壘交錯,有的胳膊大腿有明顯斷裂的痕跡,應該是刀砍后留下的,有的胸腔內遺有毒箭頭,還有的僅有軀干而無頭顱,從種種跡象來看,趙軍絕非活埋,而是先殺死后再掩埋的。

            長平之戰雖然過去了兩千多年,但戰爭的悲涼和雄渾卻仍然回蕩在殺谷,白起也因為此戰被奉為殺神。可能是因為殺戮太多,白起最終的結局也是以悲劇收場,因受到秦王猜忌,被秦王賜死。

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