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        1. 對長平之戰的評價:秦統一各國的腳步無人能擋

            在周王朝即將走向末日的戰國時期,發生了一場被認為是當時天下局勢轉折點的戰爭——長平之戰。而這場戰爭也是當時眾多戰爭中規模最大,以及傷亡最慘烈的一場。戰爭結束后,秦統一各國的腳步再無人能夠阻擋。  

          長平之戰圖

            長平之戰圖

            公元前262年,秦軍伐韓,上黨郡與韓國失去聯系。郡守馮亭不愿聽從韓王的命令,將上黨郡拱手獻給秦國。他派遣使者去往趙國,表明愿意將上黨郡的城池獻給趙國。趙王認為這是大利,便欣然同意。

            趙國此舉引起了秦國的不滿,秦王決定出兵伐趙。公元前260年,秦軍攻取上黨,繼而去攻打長平,趙王令大將廉頗迎戰。之后發生的幾次對戰中,趙軍均失利,兩個重要據點被秦軍占領,還不斷有尉官被俘虜。趙王由此對廉頗心生不滿。

            此后,廉頗依托有利地形,固守不出。其實,這看來是一種消極的對抗方式,但這位老將的心中自有他的一番打算。秦軍遠征而來,只有急擊速戰,成功的可能性才大。而一旦拖的時間越久,往往就會導致士氣低下、攻勢受挫,這會大大地有利于趙軍。除此之外,秦軍還要面臨不利的地理位置、氣候、糧草、士兵傷痛等問題。為了盡快地取得勝利,秦國派人進入趙國施行反間計,致使趙王撤換廉頗,換上趙括為趙軍主將。趙括上任后,改變了廉頗的作戰方案,主動向秦軍發起進攻。

            最終,趙括帶領的趙軍敗給了秦國主將白起。這場戰爭中,趙國士兵損失約45萬人,秦軍也傷亡大半。這就是“長平之戰”的典故。 

            長平之戰交戰雙方

            世人皆知,戰國時期爆發了一場“長平之戰”,對后來天下的局勢幾乎是產生了決定性的影響。這場戰爭的交戰國分別是秦國和趙國,秦國的國力已經日益強盛,而趙國當時也沒有受到重創,并不比秦國弱上多少。因此,在交戰雙方實力并不懸殊的情況下,長平之戰成為了當時規模最大、死傷最慘烈的一次圍殲戰。  

          長平之戰圖

           長平之戰圖

            秦國在“商鞅變法”之后,國內的經濟發生了較全面的改革,再加上后世的經營,逐漸變得兵強國富。因此,秦國在長平之戰中的經濟實力還是非常雄厚的,戰爭所需物資的準備也很充足。反觀趙國,“地薄人眾”是當時趙國國內的現狀,雖也經歷過改革,但力度和深度明顯不如秦國的“商鞅變法”。趙國的改革還局限在軍事方面,經濟上則相對薄弱,農業發展也愈加滯后,因此趙國的戰爭儲備其實并不適合長期的大規模戰爭。

            再來看交戰雙方的軍事實力,秦、趙兩國投入的兵力都是數量巨大的,趙國大約為45萬人,秦國則是60萬左右。秦軍民風兇悍,馬匹優良,有“虎狼之師”的稱號。趙軍則以弩弓騎兵為重,騎兵訓練有素,經驗豐富。因此,兩方兵馬在武力值上是相差不大的。

            長平之戰中,交戰方的秦、趙兩國大軍將近百萬,而且都投入了大量的人力、物力、財力,因此也有不少人認為這是雙方的一次綜合國力的較量。但從準備情況以及最后的結果來看,趙國的實力還是要稍遜于秦國的。

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