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        1. 長平之戰中趙國不換廉頗 戰爭結局會改變嗎?
          趣歷史 2017-06-19 16:53:00

            長久以來,喜歡研究中國歷史的朋友在了解到長平之戰之后,一直都在為廉頗乃至趙國扼腕嘆息,認為趙孝成王如果不聽信秦相范睢反間計,不以紙上談兵趙括代替沙場老將廉頗,也許趙國能有統一天下的機會,真是情況是這樣嗎?

            長平之戰是戰國后期戰爭規模最大的戰爭之一,它直接影響了秦趙以及戰國整個形勢的改變,從此,秦國基本上一家獨大,六國力量衰微,偶爾在六國合縱聯軍之時給秦國造成暫時性影響,但終因六國心力不齊,最終一個個被秦國消滅。

          15320007556c66ce74c1.jpg@100q.jpg

          網絡配圖

            公元前269年,秦昭襄王不滿趙惠文王違背盟約,出兵悍然攻趙地閼與。王召廉頗而問曰:可救不?對曰:“道遠險狹,難救。”又召樂乘而問焉,樂乘對如廉頗言。又召問趙奢,奢對曰:“其道遠險狹,譬之猶兩鼠于穴中,將勇者勝。”趙王于是令趙奢率軍,救韓國。后趙奢縱兵擊秦師,秦師大敗,解閼與而還。

            從史記中的記載我們可以看到,廉頗作戰風格以沉穩為主,不擅長冒險,更不擅長打無把握之戰。且廉頗主要與齊、魏、燕等過長期作戰,而這些國家在趙武靈王胡服騎射之后,國力逐漸衰弱。而秦國在商鞅變法之后,南取巴蜀、黔中,國力比趙國要高出許多,戰略物資豐富。

            公元前262年,秦國進攻韓地上黨。上黨的韓國守軍孤立無援,太守馮亭便將上黨獻給了趙國。

            公元前260年農歷四月,王龁向長平的趙國軍隊發動進攻,這時名將趙奢已死,藺相如病重,執掌軍事事務的只有廉頗。于是,趙孝成王命廉頗統帥20萬趙軍阻秦軍于長平。

            四月,龁因攻趙。趙使廉頗將。趙軍士卒犯秦斥兵,秦斥兵斬趙裨將茄。

            六月,陷趙軍,取二鄣四尉。

            七月,趙軍筑壘壁而守之。秦又攻其壘,取二尉,敗其陣,奪西壘壁。廉頗堅壁以待秦,秦數挑戰,趙兵不出。趙王既怒廉頗軍多失亡,軍數敗,又反堅壁不敢戰,而又聞秦反間之言,因使趙括代廉頗將以擊秦。秦聞馬服子將,乃陰使武安君白起為上將軍。而王龁為尉裨將,令軍中有敢泄武安君將者斬。

          20150602110018_8aVFB.jpg

          網絡配圖

            至九月,趙卒不得食四十六日,皆內陰相殺食。來攻秦壘,欲出。為四隊,四五復之,不能出。其將軍趙括出銳卒自搏戰,秦軍射殺趙括。趙國軍隊因無主將指揮,四十萬士兵向秦將白起投降。白起用欺騙的手段,命令秦國軍隊將趙國降兵全部活埋,只留下年紀尚小的240名士兵放回趙國。

            長平之戰歷時三年,戰爭初期廉頗與秦軍僵持兩年,導致趙國國內已經陷入無糧可食的局面。同時將本來善于野戰的趙軍用于防守戰,讓秦軍順利包抄趙國后方,不斷騷擾趙國的糧道,讓趙國雪上加霜,完全失去了主動權,同時由于趙國外交上的失敗,導致趙國陷于外無援兵,內無糧草的死地,最終導致趙國失去了扭轉趙國命運的機會。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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