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        1. 解析歷史上最不可思議的敗仗淝水之戰失敗原因
          趣歷史 2017-06-18 11:46:09

            苻堅淝水之戰的戰役過程太元元年〔376年〕,孝武帝司馬矅開始親政,謝安升中書監、錄尚書事,總攬朝政,陳郡謝氏成為東晉的最后一個“當軸士族”。同年,苻堅統一了中國北方,前秦與東晉的戰爭已經臨近。當時的東晉,長江上游由桓氏掌握,下游則屬于謝氏當政,謝安盡力調和桓謝兩大家族關系,以為即將爆發的戰爭作準備。 

          淝水之戰

            淝水之戰

            戰前準備377年,廣陵缺乏良將防守,謝安不顧他人議論,極力舉薦自己的侄子謝玄出任兗州刺史,鎮守廣陵,負責長江下游江北一線的軍事防守。謝安則自己都督揚州、豫州、徐州、兗州、青州五州軍事,總管長江下游。謝玄不負叔父重托,在廣陵挑選良將,訓練精兵,選拔了劉牢之、何謙等人,并訓練出一支在當時的整個中國最具有戰斗力的精兵——北府兵。歷史上最不可思議的敗仗"/>第一階段:淮南之戰378年四月,前秦征南大將軍苻丕率步騎7萬人進攻襄陽。苻堅又另派10萬多人,分三路合圍襄陽,總計投入兵力就是17萬。 

            襄陽守將朱序死守近一年后,于太元四年(379年)二月城破被俘。苻堅又派彭超圍攻彭城,秦晉淮南之戰爆發。謝安在建康布防,又令謝玄率5萬北府兵,自廣陵起兵,謝玄4戰4勝,全殲敵軍。謝安因功封建昌縣公,謝玄封東興縣侯。第二階段:淝水之戰太元八年(383年)五月,桓沖傾十萬荊州兵伐秦,以牽制秦軍,減輕對下游的壓力,苻堅派苻睿、慕容垂姚萇慕容暐等人迎戰,自己親率步兵六十萬,騎兵二十七萬,以弟苻融為先鋒,于八月大舉南侵。謝安臨危受命,以謝石為前線大都督,謝玄為先鋒,并謝琰、桓伊等人,領八萬兵馬,分三路迎擊前秦軍。苻堅自認為能速戰速決,并派已是前秦度支尚書的朱序前去勸降謝石,朱序卻私下提示謝石宜先發制人。十一月,謝玄遣劉牢之以五千精兵奇襲,取得洛澗大捷,秦軍折損十名大將及五萬主力。  

          1.jpg

            淝水之戰

            十二月,雙方決戰于淝水,朱序在秦軍陣后大叫:“前線的秦軍敗了!”,秦軍陣腳大亂,隨后晉軍全力出擊,大敗秦軍。謝玄、謝琰和桓伊率領晉軍七萬,戰勝了苻堅和苻融所統率的前秦十五萬大軍,并陣斬苻融,淝水之戰以晉軍的全面勝利告終。

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