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        1. 揭秘甲午海戰清軍裝備 炮內裝沙子并非腐敗
          趣歷史 2017-05-10 15:17:46

            經典影片《甲午風云》是1962年攝制的。片中,鄧世昌命令致遠艦上的水兵將彈頭拔下,從炮彈中倒出的竟然是沙子。看到這一情節,每個中華兒女必然無比憤慨,沒想到清廷的腐朽竟至于此。

            然而,為什么大戰在即,北洋海軍的炮彈中卻裝滿了沙子呢?原來,當時北洋海軍各艦使用的炮彈主要有兩種,一種是開花彈,另一種則是實心彈。開花彈的彈頭內填充的是火藥或炸藥,擊中目標后會發生爆炸;而實心彈的彈頭內則很少裝藥或不裝藥,更多時候是填充泥土、沙石來配重。實心彈擊中目標后當然不會爆炸,其作戰意圖是憑借重力加速度擊穿敵艦引起進水。

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          網絡配圖

            我們在影片中看到的,實際上就是這種實心彈,它雖然不會爆炸、威力小,但卻是北洋海軍最常用的炮彈。當時,中國的近代軍工已經起步,最成規模的是江南機器制造總局和天津機器局,但這兩家廠主要是生產陸軍用的小口徑行營炮、步槍以及相關彈藥,對中、大口徑火炮所需的炮彈,只能制造技術難度相對較低的實心彈,而開花彈則要依賴進口。

            據北洋海軍總教習、德國人漢納根在甲午海戰后報告,北洋旗艦定遠艦在戰前只補充了 55顆國產普通開花彈,平均一門炮頂多分得十幾枚。在海戰中,僅一個半小時這類炮彈就打光了。剩余的3個多小時里,定遠艦的305毫米巨炮只能發射根本不會爆炸的實心彈。

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          網絡配圖

            而影片中鄧世昌試圖去撞沉的日本吉野艦,海戰結束后尚剩余120毫米和150毫米炮彈1251發,各種機關炮彈6095發,彈藥仍舊極其充足。并且,日本海軍用的所有炮彈,均是開花彈。

            北洋海軍極為稀缺的開花彈,無論是外購還是自造,彈內填充的都是黑火藥。這種中國古代方士在煉丹時偶然發現的化學物質,主要成分是木炭和硫磺,其工作原理類似于過年時燃放的爆竹。用這種黑火藥來充當炸藥,只能通過爆炸時產生的沖擊波和炸開的炮彈碎片來殺傷敵軍、破壞敵艦,其威力極為有限。這也就是甲午海戰之前的歷次重大海戰中,從來沒有一艘軍艦是被炮彈直接擊沉的原因所在。

            1891年,工程師下瀨雅允成功配制出了以苦味酸為主要成分的烈性炸藥,定名“下瀨火藥”。1893年1月28日,日本海軍正式開始換裝填充了下瀨火藥的炮彈。這種填充了下瀨火藥的炮彈威力極大。它靈敏度高,即便命中細小的繩索都能引發爆炸;爆炸后除形成沖擊波和炮彈碎片外,還會伴隨有中心溫度高達上千度的大火,足以把鋼鐵點燃;爆炸形成的火焰會像汽油著火一般四散流動,就算在水中都能持續燃燒一段時間。

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          網絡配圖

            1894年9月17日午后,滿載新式炮彈的12艘日艦與北洋海軍主力在黃海大東溝遭遇,經過5小時鏖戰,參戰的12艘中國軍艦4沉2逃,其余被重創以致難以修復。而中國軍艦的炮彈命中率雖也不低,但卻無法直接對日艦造成大的損壞,唯一明顯的戰果是鎮遠發炮擊中日本旗艦松島艦的彈藥房,引起連環爆炸,形成大火,導致軍艦重創。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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