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        1. 赤壁之戰:諸葛亮與周瑜以少勝多的戰役
          趣歷史 2017-03-31 15:58:40

            赤壁之戰是公元208年,孫權劉備聯軍在長江赤壁一帶,大敗曹軍的一次決戰。話說曹操袁紹、破烏桓,基本統一北方后,于建安十三年七月,揮師南下,欲先滅掉劉表,再順著長江東進,擊敗孫權,以統一天下。  

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            赤壁之戰

            九月,曹軍進占新野(今屬河南),時劉表已死,其子劉琮不戰而降。依附劉表屯兵樊城(今屬湖北)的劉備倉促率軍民南撤。曹操收編劉表部眾,號稱八十萬大軍向長江推進。劉備在長(今湖北當陽境)被曹軍大敗后,于退軍途中派諸葛亮赴柴桑(今江西九江西南)會見孫權,說服孫權結盟抗曹。 

            孫權命周瑜為主將,程普為副,率三萬精銳水軍,聯合屯駐樊口(今湖北鄂州境)的劉備軍,共約五萬人溯長江西進,迎擊曹軍。十一月,孫劉聯軍與曹軍對峙于赤壁。曹操將戰船首尾相連,結為一體,以利演練水軍,伺機攻戰。周瑜采納部將黃蓋所獻火攻計,并令其致書曹操詐降,曹操中計。黃蓋擇時率蒙沖斗艦乘風駛入曹軍水寨縱火。曹軍船陣被燒,火勢延及岸上營寨,孫劉聯軍乘勢出擊,曹軍死傷過半,遂率部北退,留征南將軍曹仁固守江陵。聯軍乘勝擴張戰果,孫劉兩軍分占荊州要地。  

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            赤壁之戰

            赤壁之戰的影響

            這場戰役標志著中國軍事政治中心不再限于黃河流域。這場戰役的大敗也讓曹操失去了在短時間內統一中國的可能性,而孫權劉備則借此勝役開始發展壯大各自的勢力,曹、劉、孫三家爭奪荊州之戰揭開序幕。此后,曹操退回北方,再沒有機會以如此大規模進行南征。此戰形成天下三分的雛型,奠定三國鼎立的基礎。 

            評價赤壁之戰

            按照《三國演義》的故事,赤壁之戰是以弱勝強的戰役,也是中國歷史上以少勝多的著名戰役,以少勝多而大敗曹軍得益于孫劉在強敵緊逼的危難關頭而結盟抗戰,加上周瑜精密的指揮。而曹操在有利形勢下,輕敵自負,指揮失誤,終致戰敗。

            多年來,對赤壁之戰的討論和評價諸多。  

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            赤壁之戰

            比如,李友松的《曹操兵敗赤壁與血吸蟲病關系之探討》一文指出曹操赤壁之戰兵敗是因為急性血吸蟲病。他說赤壁之戰的戰場恰恰是當時血吸蟲病嚴重流行的地區,而且時間又是血吸蟲病的感染季節。曹操水軍在赤壁之戰戰前就染上了血吸蟲病,經過一個月的時間加上戰時體力消耗,致使大戰時疲病交加,不堪一擊

            而毛澤東在《中國革命戰爭的戰略問題》一文中列舉的中國歷史上“雙方強弱不同,弱者先讓一步,后發制人,因而戰勝”的著名戰役就列舉了赤壁之戰。他認為戰爭的勝負取決于雙方政治、軍事、經濟等多方面的條件,但最重要的是雙方軍事實力的較量。孫劉聯軍以少擊眾、以劣勢對優勢并最終大獲全勝,其取勝之道是值得后人很好地深思的。

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