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        1. 赤壁之戰真相:曹操自己說八十萬 那是虛數
          趣歷史 2017-03-17 10:45:19

            東漢建安十三年(公元208年),曹操孫權劉備在今赤壁市三國赤壁古戰場(原蒲圻市)進行了一次爭奪汗鼎的大戰,這就是有名的“赤壁之戰”。曹操究竟有多少兵力?曹操自己說八十萬,那是虛數。古今史學界無一認同此數。

            曹操南征荊州時,從十五六萬北方軍人中抽調出步兵八萬人、騎兵一萬余人,但調集來南征的軍隊沒有全部都參戰。旱路運輸限制了出戰的兵力。在一條線上,上限兵力只能是五六萬,超過此數,不僅道路擁塞,后勤也無法保障。

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          網絡配圖

            至于荊州兵,總數或許可達七八萬,但長沙、桂陽、零陵、武陵等南四郡僅僅被撫定,曹軍從來沒到過那里,所能動用的就是集結在襄陽等地的二萬余人。

            隨后,曹操又留徐晃駐扎樊城,令曹仁鎮守江陵。如此算來,東征進抵赤壁的曹軍總兵力約七萬人。

            對于孫權方面,基本一致按照《三國志》的明確記載,是孫權給了周瑜三萬人馬參戰,而對于劉備方面,則多數以諸葛亮自己說劉備一萬加劉琦一萬合計兩萬為準。大致上均認為是孫劉聯軍五萬人參戰。

            以五萬抵抗七萬兵力,人們普遍認為赤壁之戰是一次以少勝多的戰例屬實,但雙方兵力對比并不十分懸殊。

            諸葛亮不曾有過“草船借箭”的事。但“草船借箭”也并非空穴來風,據《三國志·吳主傳》裴松之注有關記載,建安十八年,即赤壁之戰五年后,曹操率大軍南下進攻孫吳。一天,孫權借江面有薄霧,乘輕便戰船從濡須口闖入曹軍前沿,觀察曹營部署。曹操生性多疑,見江面水霧繚繞,孫軍整肅威嚴,恐怕有詐不敢出戰,下令弓弩齊發,箭射吳船。孫權的船很快便落滿了箭,船因一面受箭偏重,漸漸傾斜即將翻沉。孫權命令掉轉船頭,讓另一面受箭,船身平穩后,孫權指揮戰船列隊,緩緩離去,曹操才明白上了當。

            這只是發生在孫權身上的一個故事,僅僅是急中生智之舉罷了。他并沒有計劃“借箭”,史書中也沒說是草船。

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          網絡配圖

            三國歷史上并沒有黃蓋使用苦肉計,但詐降確有其事。黃蓋為保證無武裝的火船不被截擊而能夠順利地接近曹軍水寨,便向曹操投書詐降。

            周瑜的同郡蔣干被曹操派去說服周瑜也確有其事,但并非在赤壁之戰中。裴松之注《三國志》時把它記在赤壁之戰后,并且只有蔣干勸降,沒有中周瑜的反間計。而蔡瑁、張允也沒有被卷入其中,他們甚至壓根就不是曹操的水軍都督。

            此外,曹操很輕易地相信了黃蓋的投降,是因為曹操認為,黃蓋曾經做過孫堅的部下,資格比周瑜老,屈居在周瑜之下,很可能心有不甘。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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