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        1. 鴉片戰爭慘敗的真正原因:林則徐瞞報軍情
          趣歷史 2016-11-02 17:00:45

            鴉片戰爭中英之間第一場戰爭。鴉片戰爭起因是英國在廣東傾銷鴉片,嚴重擾亂了廣東社會。英國借此發動了鴉片戰爭,目的為打開中國市場,傾銷商品。戰爭初期清軍英勇作戰,但后來還是以慘敗結束。清朝被迫簽訂《南京條約》,割地賠款,喪權辱國,但此時大清朝其實還是愚昧麻木的,不以為然,還沉浸天朝大國的迷夢之中。

            很多人認為戰爭失敗是武器裝備和體制的問題,其實將軍瞞報軍情也是重要原因。

            這場戰爭的過程我們都很清楚,英軍全程都是在壓著清軍打。但是在道光皇帝接到的奏折里,戰爭初期卻全是清軍大獲全勝的喜報。

            比如鴉片戰爭開始前的兩次武裝沖突里,第一次沖突,英軍自己的記錄是只有幾個人受傷。林則徐的奏折里則說,擊沉英軍一艘船,擊斃英軍17人以上。第二次沖突英軍的記錄是無人傷亡。林則徐的奏折說:附近漁船撈到了敵人的帽子21頂,經過辨認,其中有兩頂是敵人軍官所戴,其余各種外國人的物件“不可以數計”。這樣的描述,讓我們很難相信林則徐的奏折里沒有夸大戰果的意思。

            其實這還算是客觀的,后面其他人的奏折更沒法看了。如虎門之戰里,清軍250人戰死,100多人受傷,1000多人被俘,英軍僅僅5人受了輕傷。這完全是一面倒的失敗,但是清方的奏折里赫然寫著“共計剿殺夷逆漢奸六百余名”。第二次定海保衛戰,英軍戰死2人,受傷27人,清方的記錄里則寫著“剿殺逆夷一千數百名”。

            下級官員隱瞞事實欺騙上級領導,導致報告和實情差異巨大,看起來似乎覺得不可思議,但這的確是中國古代社會難以克服的頑疾之一。

            在中國古代社會,有一些問題始終難以解決,比較重要的主要有:地方豪強兼并土地、截留稅款、瞞報上稅人口。這些問題歷代朝廷都沒有辦法真正搞定,并且越到王朝末期就越發嚴重。

            也許你會想,這些問題為什么不能解決?聽起來并不是多么難辦的事情嘛,皇帝下個命令不就行了嗎?比如哪個土豪占的土地太多了,皇帝讓他把土地分出來,他敢不從嗎?或者收取他高額懲罰性稅賦可不可以?至于稅款截留、隱瞞人口的問題,皇帝可以下令整頓稅吏,做大規模的清查人口嘛。

            實際上,這些辦法都有一定的效果,中國歷史上稍微精明一點的皇帝都干過這些事。但除了開國初期外,其余的皇帝全都失敗了。遠的不說,就說清朝的雍正乾隆,他們這樣在中國歷史上處于皇權巔峰時期的皇帝,也最終沒辦成這事。

            為什么呢?

            如果簡單籠統的給個答案,那就是:在獨裁社會中,朝廷缺少足夠的監督力量。

            皇帝固然可以設計各種監督機制,比如在各地設置監督官員,或像唐朝那樣派宦官當監軍,又或像明朝那樣派遣特務,甚至像清朝那樣采用秘密奏折制度。但這些制度都有一個相同的缺點:負責監督的人數太少。只要人數少,被監督者就總有辦法買通監督者,共同欺上瞞下。

            就拿清末來說,清末雖然有秘密奏折制度,但是到了乾隆后期,官場貪腐成風,所有上奏折的人都貪,大家誰能檢舉誰?就算有個別人想冒頭檢舉,皇帝接到舉報后又不能輕信,還要派欽差到地方上調查取證,只要地方上的貪官互相遮掩,甚至是買通欽差,那皇帝還是沒有什么辦法。

            再比如土地兼并這事,皇帝們都知道土地兼并不好,可他們手下大臣都是大地主,大家的財產都來自于土地兼并、瞞報賦稅。那大臣們為什么要自己斷自己的財路?

            所以皇帝們遇到的情況是這樣的:當皇帝決定下大力氣整治土地兼并和瞞報賦稅時,朝堂上的朝廷大員們紛紛叫好,山呼萬歲皇帝英明。而當政令下到地方,地方官員們立刻緊鑼密鼓的工作,并隔三差五上報工作成果,詳細介紹我們今天做了多少工作,檢查了多少土地。事情眼看進行的十分順利。

            但當調查結果出來后,看看具體清查的案件,你就會明白那些被處罰的對象都是一些沒勢力后臺的小地主。真正的大地主們在文件上全都是清清白白的。光看產權文件,他們家里也就一間院子三畝地,完全符合朝廷規定。

            這時候假設你是皇帝,還能怎么辦呢?總不能親自走遍全國幾千個縣里,挨個踹開每個地主家的院子,看看他們家到底有多大不成?

            這個中國古代政府無法解決的問題,以后世的經驗看來,解決瞞報最好的辦法就是輿論監督。

            比如歐洲采取議會制以后,議會里的議員都是老百姓選出來的,可是老百姓怎么知道這個議員為人怎么樣,自己該不該選呢?這就要靠報社了。

            在商業社會里,報社也要盈利,也要面臨同行的激烈競爭。百姓們關心自己選的議員為人到底怎么樣,報社記者為了能多賺錢,也就會跟“狗仔隊”一樣,拼命去找關于議員的各種新聞。

            滿清的官員可以收買監督者一起騙皇帝的錢,議員卻不可能去收買記者:全國那么多報社,那么多記者,你收買得過來嗎?退一步說,就算有一個土豪超級有錢,把全國記者都收買了。但這就意味著記者這個行業太好干了,是個人就能拿一大筆錢,在經濟利益的驅動下,結果就是會有大量的人繼續涌進來當記者,大量的新報社成立。等于這個壞人是在拿自己的錢去壯大監督自己的力量,壞人是在用自己的左手打右手,無論他多有錢,最終一定還是控制不住記者曝光他,還是沒法欺上瞞下。

            我們可以設想一下,如果鴉片戰爭整個反過來,變成清朝軍隊入侵英國,那么今天利物浦吃了敗仗,倆小時后倫敦報紙就會有快訊,第二天大部分報紙上都能出現一線的詳細采訪。軍官想要在奏折里胡說八道是根本不可能的。

            可惜,大興文字獄的滿清政府顯然不可能允許民間自由開辦報社,更不允許報社胡亂報道官員的壞話。農業社會也沒有足夠大的市場去刺激百姓開辦報社,那官員們的欺上瞞下也就無可避免了。

            回過頭來再看歷史上的這場戰爭,會發現清方從上到下,至始至終都存在嚴重的瞞報問題,這導致了一個很可怕的局面:下級官員不肯把前線真實的情況告訴皇帝,不敢匯報英國人的真實要求,皇帝也就不可能對前線下達正確的命令。以至于在鴉片戰爭開打了很長一段時間,道光皇帝還不知道英國人為什么開戰!

            他聽信官員在奏折里的胡說八道,一直以為整個事件是“有一些蠻夷商人,因為林則徐禁煙沒處理好,讓他們覺得自己很冤屈,到處開著船在中國沿海找官員哭訴伸冤”。他以為這只是和外國商人發生的局部沖突,根本不知道,也不可能想到自己已經是在和一個國家開戰了。

            當然,在清朝的秘密奏折制度之下,也偶爾有耿直的官員說實話,這些實話也可能會被皇帝看見,但還是那句話,假設把你換成皇帝,面對大多數人的意見,和偶爾發出的少數人的聲音,你會聽誰的?

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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