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        1. 苻堅在淝水之戰中犯了什么致命錯誤讓他錯失天下?
          趣歷史 2016-10-27 17:14:38

            苻堅怎么讀

            苻,有兩個讀音,一個和福的發音一樣一個和蒲的發音一樣。苻,名詞指草木植物,苻蘺就是白芷的另一個名稱。苻通莩,蘆葦桿里的薄膜,稀薄的意思。苻,通符,符文,符命,指預言命運。苻,作為姓氏,通蒲,有兩個音,一個福音,現代的讀音,一個蒲音古代的讀音。苻氏現在讀福音,古代為蒲氏

            

          苻堅墓地


            苻堅墓地

            為什么出現兩種讀音,和苻姓氏的來源有關。

            古代最早沒有苻姓,有蒲姓蒲洪氐族人,是后趙石虎的部下的大將。蒲洪作為將領深得士兵的信任,士兵作戰能夠為蒲洪出生入死,蒲洪的兒子優良有才華。后趙被冉魏打敗,國家四分五裂,后趙南方和北方的子民都投降他國去了。蒲洪帶領著他的手下和氐族人,打算避開冉魏回到故鄉。然而在路上,他的手下都勸蒲洪自立為王。蒲洪之前得知預言有一句草付為王的話,又看到他的孫子蒲堅背上有草付兩字,于是同意建立國家,國號為前秦。蒲洪把蒲姓改為苻姓,以此為姓氏建國。因此蒲堅改成了苻堅。這是苻堅名字的由來。古音讀蒲堅,現代讀苻堅。

            堅,結實,固定,堅定的意思,也為姓氏名稱。堅發音和間一樣。苻堅的讀音已經揭曉了。苻堅,西晉后的君主,為前秦君主,氐族人,曾打敗其他國家統一了北方。他的名字讀音不復雜,但容易誤讀,因此需要查閱歷史資料明白苻氏的起源才能掌握好苻堅讀音。

            苻堅大帝

            雖然一個淝水之戰,使他落得不太好的下場和不太好的名聲,可是坦白來說,他是一個不錯的君王。他也曾經勵精圖治,只是后來遭遇了滑鐵盧而已。如果不是他的優異,后人也不會稱呼他為“苻堅大帝”。

            

          苻堅銅像


            苻堅銅像

            苻堅大帝是個人才,而且他還注意重用人才。那個最出名的人叫做王翰,后人常常把他類比管仲。當然前者顯然不如后者,但也可能是因為時代原因,也可能因為他們輔佐的君主和國家的下場不同,也可能是因為前者殺戮太過決斷。一定的時代造就一定的精英,在當時的背景下,王翰的做法,也是符合歷史的。毋庸置疑的,他為苻堅鞏固了江山。

            苻堅大帝文韜武略,在統一國家方面很有成就。他讓各少數民族向他稱臣,在他遇到人生的滑鐵盧之前,他幾乎是統一了大半中國疆域。此后數十年,再也沒有像他那樣豐功偉業的帝王。但是因為他的個人因素太明顯,領袖崇拜是一種不可取的做法,一旦他的偶像光環被打破,臣服的國家離棄也是必然。四面楚歌的時候,不知道他再想起曾經的輝煌,萬眾臣服的景象,會是什么樣的心情。

            因為事業做的太大,所以驕傲了。人一旦驕傲,就會不聽勸說。淝水之戰就是驗證了這一點,可是造成的損失和產生的后果已無法彌補,一個人向上爬很慢,可是跌落懸崖不過是一夜的事情。苻堅大帝就是這樣。

            苻堅淝水之戰

            苻堅是中國兩晉時期少有的大英雄大豪杰,可以說他英明一世,帶著前秦一統了中國的北方大地,而當時的他也不過是40來歲,還算是正值壯年,眼看著一統天下的大業可能會在他手中完成,苻堅卻犯了一個致命的錯誤,淝水一戰讓前秦徹底失去了爭奪天下的資本。

            

          苻堅淝水之戰


            苻堅淝水之戰

            說到苻堅就不得不提到王猛,王猛此人雖說在現在名聲不顯,但是可以稱得上是魏晉南北朝時期最偉大的政治家,被后世人稱為“功蓋諸葛第一人”,是古往今來少有的大賢。在王猛的幫助下,苻堅才得以一統北方大陸,但是可惜的是在375年的時候王猛病逝,王猛的去世對于苻堅的打擊是巨大的,就像是齊桓公沒了管仲一樣,原來有個王猛能夠幫他戒備著,看管著諸多事務,這時候王猛不在苻堅的缺點就暴露出來了。

            苻堅是一個有大胸襟的人,換句話說就是頗有一種大丈夫的風采,但是他對于投降自己的人沒有什么戒心,以為自己以誠待人,人家也會以誠待自己,所以這一戰吃了大虧,以至于前秦也滅亡了,自己也沒多久就死了,當時有一個東晉的降將叫做朱序,朱序雖然受到了苻堅的良好待遇,但是卻是心向東晉,結果苻堅還派他去勸降,于是朱序將前秦的布置全部說了,還把前秦的缺點都告訴了東晉將士,結果先鋒軍大敗,后來更是在前秦敗像初顯,但是只要整頓兵馬還能翻盤的時候,在前秦軍中大肆宣揚著“秦兵已敗”,讓后面的秦兵還沒打就先逃跑了。

            苻堅有關的成語

            苻堅作為歷史上還算有名的人物,留下的傳說有很多,其中的留下的四字成語也有不少。比如說“風聲鶴唳”“草木皆兵”“艸付應王”“投鞭斷流”“垂韁之義”之類的。其中大多是和淝水之戰有關。

            

          苻堅


            苻堅

            當初他去和東晉打仗的時候,手下都勸他說,東晉不容易打,最好不要輕易去打。可是苻堅因為之前勝仗打得多了,幾乎是戰無不勝,所以就輕敵了,仗著自己的兵力雄厚,說了一句讓后人很鄙視的話:“我的士兵把鞭子都扔到河里去,都能阻止河水繼續流動,我還怕什么?”這句話對于鼓舞士氣和讓敵人害怕是起到了一定的效果的,可是正常人一聽也覺得這是在危言聳聽。這個“投鞭斷流”的典故,也從側面證明了苻堅當時的自大心理。

            就是因為太輕敵,所以在戰場上就很吃力。一個戰略不當,導致士兵打敗,士氣低沉。就像四面楚歌那樣,前秦的士兵們看到了山上的一草一木,都嚇得感覺是敵人站在那里似的。風呼呼的掛著,有白鶴在叫,如果是好心情的話,會覺得這是一個不錯的征兆。可是當時的士兵們人心惶惶,覺得那就像是敵人的喊聲,所以他們沒命的逃竄。要知道,一個軍隊傷亡最慘重的時候,不是在戰場,而是在撤退的途中。一旦沒有了隊形,就任人宰割。就這樣,前秦大敗。苻堅的一世英名,因為這一場戰爭毀掉了。

            苻堅流傳后世的成語基本都與這場敗仗有關,實在是有點讓人遺憾。


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