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        1. 甲午海戰著名將領丁汝昌為何自殺
          趣歷史 2016-10-19 15:52:23 丁汝昌 李鴻章

            丁汝昌是清末漢族人,甲午海戰著名將領。丁汝昌簡介中提到他自幼家境貧苦,年少加入太平軍,因太平軍勢頭去,后又加入清軍,被迫鎮壓太平軍,隨后被李鴻章提拔為北洋水軍提督,與日軍進行激烈的海戰。

            

          丁汝昌雕塑


            丁汝昌雕塑

            丁汝昌做事誠懇,為人忠厚,李鴻章對他贊許頗多。后因朝中好多人向光緒進言稱他無心指揮戰爭,光緒多次想罷免他的職位,多虧李鴻章向光緒上書,表示丁汝昌是忠厚的人,才保住他的提督地位。隨后其又被清政府調至黃海,去對抗強大的日本海軍。據丁汝昌簡介中記載,一次大戰之中因清政府指揮混亂,其帶領的北洋艦隊與日艦一路作戰,一路敗退。但是他心存不甘,卻無力改變現狀,被日艦圍攻。雖然彈盡糧絕,但士氣高漲,多次突圍,因日軍裝備先進被多次擊退,最后兵敗,損失巨大。

            丁汝昌的艦隊被調往內海進行修理,他也將面臨審判,他卻不以為然仍然為海防所擔心,日軍勸其投降也被回絕。他決心抵抗到底,與日軍在劉公島進行死戰,日艦眾多,又裝備先進。他不斷用遠炮打擊,但作用不大,日軍夜間偷襲,不斷用魚雷進攻,丁汝昌的部隊損失慘重,再次兵敗。日軍再次勸其投降,再次被丁汝昌回絕,但是兵敗如山倒,這次他已無力回天。

            丁汝昌之死

            丁汝昌是清末北洋海軍總提督,是一名民族英雄,逝世于1895年2月。丁汝昌是一位性情忠厚、做事勤勉的將領,卻落了個服毒自殺的結局。史學家們對他的死褒貶不一,那么丁汝昌之死到底是怎樣的呢?

            

          劉公島海戰紀念館


            劉公島海戰紀念館

            1985年1月日軍登陸榮成灣,威海衛戰役正式爆發,陸戰失敗,威海失守。之后丁汝昌在劉公島上被日軍海陸圍攻,開始了壯烈的劉公島保衛戰,丁汝昌之死由此拉開了序幕。丁汝昌被困與劉公島,在缺乏彈藥和沒有援軍的困境中,仍頑強率領士兵擊退日軍數十次的進攻。他是一個極其愛國的人,寧死也不肯投降。同時他又是一個和藹忠厚的人,在大部分陸軍撤離炮臺后,島上人民紛紛來到海軍公所,請求丁汝昌給他們一條活路。面對和自己一同奮戰的士兵和島上的百姓,他不忍心讓他們和自己一起死,在這種險惡的情況下,為了讓全島軍民有生路,丁汝昌在深夜服下大量鴉片結束生命,以此來挽救全島軍民的命運。

            丁汝昌之死在甲午中日戰爭中是及其悲涼的一幕。有人說丁汝昌是害怕承擔戰敗的責任所以自殺,是懦弱。也有人說他自殺是為了保住全體劉公島軍民的性命,是義。對于丁汝昌之死,每個人都有自己的看法,但不可否認的是,他是偉大的民族英雄,為保衛祖國做出了很大的貢獻,值得后人尊敬、懷念。

            丁汝昌的罪責

            丁汝昌是甲午中日戰爭中北洋海軍的將領,在劉公島保衛戰中服毒殉國。之后丁汝昌的罪責被無限放大,成為甲午戰敗的替罪羊。對于丁汝昌的罪責,人們至今都有很大的爭議,人們認為那些不符合事情的指責應該被澄清。

            

          丁汝昌舊照


            丁汝昌舊照

            指責丁汝昌的不實言論主要有以下三方面。首先是丁汝昌指揮能力不足。這主要是說他對海軍專業不夠了解,組織能力弱,使得北洋海軍管理不得當。丁汝昌確實不是出身海軍科班,海軍知識比不上科班將領,但是丁汝昌的和他們對比,資歷最深作戰經驗最豐富,戰功也是最多的,他足以勝任提督的位置。并且丁汝昌也一直努力學習海軍知識,非常熟悉海軍事務。

            然后有人說丁汝昌懦弱、消極應戰、延誤戰機。這個指責純屬無中生有。史料記載在甲午戰爭中,大大小小的戰斗他幾乎全部都有參與。黃海戰役中,即使他身受創傷仍要堅持留在甲板上指揮戰斗,激勵將士。他有很多機會脫離戰場,可是他并沒有這樣做,有時甚至頂著多方的壓力,忍辱負重也要頑強堅守,直到最后服毒殉國。還有人指責丁汝昌投降是甲午海戰中國失敗的罪魁禍首。這是滿清統治階層為了逃避責任對丁汝昌的污蔑,甚至有人說他是投降后才自殺的,指責他并不愛國。所幸的是隨著學者們的研究、探索,那些丁汝昌的罪責中虛構的部分,正逐漸被澄清。

            對丁汝昌的評價

            至今為止,人們對丁汝昌的評價都存在兩個方面。外國人覺得丁汝昌是愛國人士,認為他為自己的祖國做出很大的貢獻。然而在中國卻有人刻意丑化丁汝昌,世人因此對丁汝昌的評價出入很大。

            

          丁汝昌劇照


            外國人認為丁汝昌為國獻出生命的行為很偉大。在甲午戰爭中,日軍想要丁汝昌投降,面對劉公島軍民將要全體滅亡的局面,丁汝昌選擇了自殺,為士兵和百姓換回生存下去的希望。這一消息讓外國人感到很吃驚,他們覺得丁汝昌在拼盡全力以后自殺,這是英勇的行為。日本人對自殺行為有著很高的崇拜感,他們覺得當局面不利時,自殺是一種光榮、正義的行為。他們覺得丁汝昌的行為很符合軍人的作風,頗有大將風范。西方人對丁汝昌的評價中稱他是一位勇士。他們認為戰敗并不可恥,丁汝昌能夠把這么多的軍隊協調好,帶軍英勇抗敵本身就是件了不起的事。

            在中國,卻有人認為他指揮作戰的水平不高,畏懼戰爭。在那些反對丁汝昌的人眼中,丁汝昌是個膽小怕事的人,且貪污嚴重,私生活奢侈糜爛。在威海衛戰爭中,他害怕戰敗被株連九族,拒絕了日本的勸降,還放任自己的部下通敵,在情勢的逼迫下含羞自殺。但是更多的中國人對丁汝昌的評價是正面的,丁汝昌在海戰中英勇抗敵、身負重傷仍堅持作戰的事跡,是任何人都無法抹殺的。


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