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        1. 清朝官員分析鴉片戰爭:火炮命中率低

            第一次鴉片戰爭是中國近代史上一件大事,以此事件為標志,中國開始進入半殖民地半封建社會,其起因、過程和結果大家都已經很熟悉,無須贅言。至于其失敗原因,主要是因為清政府的腐敗無能,像林則徐這樣有眼光有魄力的英雄也無力回天,同時,也和西方列強的船堅炮利有很大關系,中國在武器上吃了虧。

            不過,對于遠去的歷史,除了從大節上進行把握,還要從細節上深入了解,尤其是當事人的回憶錄和筆記,能從技術上揭開這場戰爭勝敗的原因。例如當時負責廣西防務的梁章鉅,就對清軍為何失敗進行了軍事技術上的探討,我們來看看他的一手資料。

            積極防御派:為抗敵盡心部署和制造火炮

            梁章鉅在近代史上的名氣遠不如林則徐,然而,他也是一個響當當的英雄人物,既有學問,又很務實,對于推動中國的進步,做了很大的貢獻。

            梁章鉅跟林則徐一樣,也是福建人,祖籍長樂,出生在福州。他是個優等生,15歲中秀才,20歲中舉人,28歲中進士,44歲的時候就入了軍機處。在考場上,他一路順風,沒有苦熬,年紀輕輕就解決了功名問題。功名早一點解決,就可以早從讀書考試中抽身出來辦實事。

            盡管仕途上很順,但梁章鉅并沒有沾沾自喜,也沒有因此而沉浸在個人的成就里,他跟林則徐一樣,對于當時英國的鴉片流入極為憂心,因此差不多在林則徐上書禁煙的時候,他也上書,提出了同樣的要求。當林則徐在廣州禁鴉片的時候,作為配合,梁章鉅也在廣西梧州一帶捉拿煙販,鏟除罌粟種植地。由于他的雷厲風行,禁煙措施頗為見效。雖然其知名度沒有林則徐的虎門銷煙大,但同樣也是利于民族之舉。

            


            梁章鉅肖像

            英國因為鴉片發動了戰爭,當時的梁章鉅在廣西梧州一帶負責防務,因此,他可算是第一次鴉片戰爭的當事人和親歷者。1841年,英國海軍在廣東沿海一帶發起進攻時,在廣西的梁章鉅連忙運送了四十座大炮支援廣州防務,據其回憶筆記《歸田瑣記》中的一篇名為炮說的文章記載,這些大炮的規格在八百觔至三千觔之間,前后選運大炮,自三千觔至八百觔不等,凡四十座,解往廣州協濟。

            送這些大炮的時候,梁章鉅也向朝廷奏明,等戰役結束之后,這些炮還是要運回廣西的。

            然而,可惜的是,廣州一戰后,這些火炮全都下落不明,據說要么被英國人破壞,要么被沉到海里去了。這讓梁章鉅很心痛,他痛斥主持防務的琦善是開門揖盜。

            同一年,梁章鉅調任江蘇巡撫,在上海會同江南提督陳化成加強防御工事。他們在吳淞海岸一帶巡查火炮部署情況,當時統計火炮有百來座。同時,他又命令在上海開造新炮數十座,準備工作還是做得很充足的。因此,他和陳化成主持防御工作時,英國的艦隊不敢冒犯,一度繞開。

            只是沒想到,梁章鉅離任后,兩江總督牛鑒貪生怕死,臨陣逃脫,丟失鎮江。又一個事實讓梁章鉅心痛不已,原來部署好制造的新炮全部丟失,次年英夷長驅直入,城內外各炮盡歸烏有。

            數次交戰失利,讓清廷很多人對英國的火炮心懷恐懼,認為中國的火炮殺傷力和射程,不如英國火炮,議者遂謂中土之炮,遠不敵英夷之炮。梁章鉅卻對此說不,他認為不是武器不如,而是另有原因。

            抗英技術派:清軍失利在于火炮命中率太低

            梁章鉅作為抗英戰爭的親自指揮者,對武器論不以為然。他認為那些恐英論是沒有理由的,沒有講到根子上,此非探本之言也。當然,梁章鉅這樣說也不是出于盲目自大,也是從技術角度出發進行反駁的。他認為英國炮艦之所以得逞,在于其火炮先聲奪人。在炮說一文中,梁章鉅列舉了實例,認為英國炮艦上的火炮最嚇人的是桅桿頂端的飛炮,這種火炮發射的時候火光迸射,縱橫一二丈,樣子挺嚇人的,廈門和寶山的失陷,就是飛炮導致的。其實,這種火炮唬人有余,摧毀力不足,攻敵則不足,用以驚敵則有余,但兩江總督牛鑒就被英軍的火炮嚇跑了。指揮官一聽到飛炮聲,一看到飛炮的氣勢,就把持不住,嚇得先跑,自然連累全軍,導致戰敗。梁章鉅認為戰敗原因,很大部分就在于指揮官被飛炮嚇壞了。

            那么,為何清軍這邊的火炮敵不過英軍的火炮呢?梁章鉅先列舉了戰爭中火炮的損失情況,他做了一個統計,在第一次鴉片戰爭期間,各省的火炮約有兩千多座,不算少了。然而,在虎門、廈門、定海、鎮海、寶山、鎮江失陷后,以上各處所屬的每個省份損失火炮四百多座,其中被英國戰艦奪走一千五六百座,八成是被掠走了。其實,英國人愿意擄走火炮,說明這些火炮還是管用的。那為什么失敗呢?

            梁章鉅作了冷靜的分析:不是威力不足,而是命中率太低。他舉例說,在廈門一戰中,清軍開炮二百余發,只有一發擊中英國軍艦,正好打在火藥艙上,大艘轟裂沉海,一艘大軍艦爆炸起火,接而裂開、沉沒,英軍撤退。僅僅打中一炮就能擊退敵軍,如果命中率再高一點,則戰果更為樂觀。

            


            清朝火炮

            他又舉例定海之戰。1841年9月26日,英軍進攻舟山群島,當時的總兵葛云飛等主持防御。清軍開炮數百發,只有一發命中敵艦,擊中的是火輪頭桅,導致英軍艦只傾斜,一時撤退。一炮之威居然如此,可惜沒能連續發威,梁章鉅感嘆:數百炮僅得一炮之力。

            因此,梁章鉅說,但使炮發能中,則我炮亦足破夷。他又列舉了英軍的裝備情況:夷艘及火輪船,多不過數十,大小杉板船,亦不過數十,艦只不多,如果在數百炮之內,有十發命中,就可以摧毀其數十艘船只,每條船殲敵數十人,綜合起來對于敵軍造成的損傷就很可觀了,甚至可以扭轉戰局,擊退侵略者。可惜沒有假設,梁章鉅透露說:虎門的火炮都是從國外買進來的,二百多座,規格大的達到九千斛,居然沒有擊傷敵人的一艘船只,何以一船未傷?令人嘆息。當然,守虎門的將士作戰都奮不顧身,不少英勇犧牲。具體戰敗因素還可以研究。

            也有人反駁梁章鉅,火炮命中率不高不是技術不行,而是陸地上的炮位比較固定,而敵人的艦只是游走的,很難瞄準,以呆炮擊活船,何能必中?梁章鉅也否定了這種說法,并親自考察了寶山炮臺的位置,發現這里的炮臺并沒有突出水面成為敵人的活靶子,也不會陷入敵人的包圍,適合防守,而難以攻克。他和抗英將領陳化成還感嘆這座炮臺設計合理,克成天險之形。結果在寶山一戰中,英軍飛炮一響,清軍指揮官嚇破了膽子,全軍潰散,設計良好的炮臺形同虛設。

            第一次鴉片戰爭期間,清朝和英國的火炮,到底有沒有技術上的差距?這是個嚴肅的科學問題,本文不下結論,但梁章鉅作為親歷人,其經驗之言應該還是值得借鑒的。

            炮戰成功案例

            僧格林沁以大炮轟退英法聯軍艦隊

            在清朝炮臺與列強艦隊作戰的歷史當中,也有成功的案例,如1859年的大沽口之戰就是典型。那一年,英法駐華公使乘坐所謂換約艦隊從上海沿水路北上,這次的艦隊比第一次鴉片戰爭的英國艦隊強大得多,包括一艘巡洋艦和13艘炮艦,行駛至大沽口時,無視主權硬闖,主持大沽口防務的僧格林沁下令炮擊英法艦隊,結果擊毀英軍戰艦3艘,英海軍傷亡四百六十余人,英海軍司令賀布還受了重傷。

            這是中國近代御侮的第一次大勝利,估計清軍在此役中的命中率已經大為提高,戰斗力大為提升,當時梁章鉅已去世,如果泉下有知,得知這個戰果,一定會含笑。

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