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        1. 苻堅淝水之戰 史上最蹊蹺的戰敗
          趣歷史 2016-10-12 11:29:41 王猛 苻堅

            苻堅的部隊集結在淝水西岸,和晉軍隔河對峙。當時苻堅部隊共有多少人,一直說法各異。苻融的軍團共有三十萬人(此處采用《資治通鑒》的記載,另有說法是二十五萬),苻堅從項城又帶來了八千騎兵。但是苻融派出過三萬人的部隊前往荊州,此外在洛澗又損失了一些兵馬,并留下一些軍隊駐守壽春。如此一來,淝水岸邊的前秦軍隊差不多應該有二十多萬人。

            

          afed41ade6814e69f44cba590edeb340.jpg


            這二十多萬軍隊集結于一地,對將領的指揮能力是一個很大的考驗。苻堅部隊里云集了各族的軍人,編制非常復雜。秦軍精銳必是氐人士卒,他們多半集中在苻融指揮的中軍。此外大軍中更有諸多漢人、鮮卑人、羌人、烏桓人,他們對“非我族類”的氐人帝國未必有多強烈的效忠心,多半還是“畏威而來”—因為害怕官府,不得不上陣打仗。

            種族上的紛雜必然會增加編制的復雜性,指揮起來也勢必更加困難。光是語言就是一個問題:各族語言不同,也未必都會說漢語,苻融的命令很可能要先翻譯成不同的語言才能下達。這二十多萬人來自五花八門的種族,又多半沒有受過正規訓練,如今在淝水岸邊擠作一團,即便神仙做他們的指揮官,只怕也很難調度自如。

            雙方沿淝水嚴陣以待,一時倒都沒什么舉動。這時,苻融收到謝玄寫的一封信。謝玄出身于士族,筆下十分來得,信寫得很是雅麗。他在信中說:“君懸軍深入,置陣逼水,此持久之計,豈欲戰者乎?若小退師,令將士周旋,仆從與君公緩轡而觀之,不亦美乎?”翻譯過來就是說:“您孤軍深入,在淝水邊擺開陣勢,難道您還要打持久戰嗎?那多不好。如果您肯稍微往后退一下軍,騰出點地方,讓小的們好好打一架。咱們悠然觀戰,豈不美哉?”

            謝玄的打算是盡快決戰。按照計劃,他將率領八千精銳部隊渡河作戰,如果形勢順利,后續主力就渡河發動大規模后續攻擊。如果失利,也可以有主力做接應。

            對謝玄的要求,前秦領導層有很大的分歧,大家多半認為這里有問題,應該嚴詞拒絕。但是,苻堅和苻融認為,等晉軍渡河到一半的時候,讓騎兵向他們發起沖鋒,哪有不大獲全勝的道理?因此,苻堅下令軍隊后撤。


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