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        1. 甲午戰爭起因:日本妄圖使朝鮮脫離清政府控制
          趣歷史 2016-06-22 19:50:13

          戰爭起因:日本妄圖使朝鮮脫離清政府控制

          甲午戰爭前,朝鮮仍是中國的附庸國。當時的朝鮮仍處于封閉自守的封建王朝控制下,生產力落后,國內政局飄搖。

          明治維新后,日本開始加強發展在朝鮮的勢力,并通過外交手段,力爭使朝鮮脫離清政府控制,成為“獨立國”。由于沒有足夠的實力作后盾,外交努力并不太成功。1884年,日本趁中國忙于中法戰爭之際,駐朝公使竹添策動親日的“開化黨”政變,12月4日一夜間推翻了保守派政權。次日,國王下詔革新政治,建立了開化黨政府。保守派連忙請求清軍支援,于是,袁世凱以保護朝鮮政府為名,率兵二千聲討亂黨,12月6日攻入王宮。竹添寡不敵眾,自焚使館,連夜潛逃。動亂中開化黨首相、大臣及三十多日本人被殺。

          日本政府接竹添急報,立即派外務大臣率大批軍隊入朝,清政府也派了欽差大臣帶了陸軍和軍艦到朝鮮。對峙中日本感到軍事準備不足,因此并沒有采取軍事行動,轉而運用外交手段。當時日本不少人主張趁中法戰爭之機迅速發動對華戰爭,但以伊藤博文為首的一派人,考慮到日本國力,特別是軍事力量不足,主張“速節冗費,多建鐵路,趕添海軍”,積蓄力量。

          1885年春,日本派伊藤博文為特派全權大使,到中國談判朝鮮問題。談判中伊藤每每以回國相要挾,后來李鴻章大怒道:“朝鮮事,中國并未辦錯,其錯處全在竹添;若因此決裂,我惟預備打仗耳!”盡管這樣,糾纏多日后簽訂的《天津條約》中,日本仍取得了向朝鮮派兵的權利。



          條約簽訂后,清政府任命袁世凱總領朝鮮事務,加緊控制朝鮮。而日本則加強經濟滲透,并且加緊擴軍備戰,等待時機。

          1880年起,日本全力擴充軍力,舉國上下士氣高昂,以趕超中國為奮斗目標,準備進行一場以“國運相賭”的戰爭。截至甲午戰爭前夕,日本已經建立了一支擁有六萬三千名常備兵和二十三萬預備兵的陸軍,和排水量七萬二千噸的海軍,超過了北洋海軍。

          而在此期間的清政府,經過數十年的洋務運動,在一系列的軍事對抗中,已經不象鴉片戰爭中那樣,洋人幾艘炮艦就應付不了,所以不免有些飄飄然。又在與西方各國打交道的過程中,意識到西方人并無意吞并國土,只是想在貿易上占些便宜而已,于是就更加放松了軍備意識。雖然說最近幾年東鄰日本的一些動作,使人隱約感到將來會是個麻煩。

          北洋海軍自1888年正式建軍后,就再沒有增添任何艦只,艦齡漸漸老化,與日本新添的戰艦相比之下,火力弱,行動遲緩。1891年以后,慈禧花重金修頤和園,連槍炮彈藥都停止購買了。


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