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        1. 淞滬會戰:15萬國軍為何抵擋不住5萬日軍的進攻?
          趣歷史 2015-09-14 15:47:50

            15萬保衛國都的國民黨軍隊對陣5萬攻城日軍,人數三倍于敵,僅抵抗12天便土崩瓦解!當時,中日之間的國力對比,軍力差距是全方位的。蔣介石深知,僅憑中國一家之力應對日本進攻,打平都是奢望。唯有將中日爭端升格為國際問題,引發列強對日本的強力干涉,弱勢的中國才能逃過一劫。在這一大背景下,已被逼向墻角的蔣介石只能做魚死網破的殊死一搏,即選擇在合適的時間、合適的地點,與日本進行一場決戰。拉歐美列強乃至蘇聯攪入中日紛爭,令歐美大規模援助中國、武裝中國。如此,中國才有希望轉敗為勝。

            出于這一目的,蔣介石將中日決戰之地選在上海。首先,上海云集各國僑民,有很多國家的領事館。一旦中日決戰,戰火無情,難免要觸犯各國利益,歐美列強怎會無動于衷?其次,上海處于蔣介石控制的江浙核心地區,既是蔣介石政府的財賦重地,又是國民黨軍隊易于集結征調之所。1937年8月,“八·一三淞滬會戰”打響,蔣介石調集75萬人馬與日本海陸空30萬軍隊決戰上海。軍隊人數雖多于日本,但因兩國軍力的綜合實力差距過于懸殊,苦戰3個月后,最終,此次會戰以國民黨軍隊傷亡30萬精銳、被迫撤退的慘重代價告終。而擁有全面優勢的日軍僅傷亡4萬余人,蔣介石精心打造的數個德械師也慘遭重創。

            淞滬會戰后,被打得支離破碎的國民黨軍隊退守南京一線。而日軍則趁勝追擊,劍指蔣介石政府的首都——南京。蔣介石并非沒有預料到南京之戰的結局,但他當時還在做國聯調解之夢,期待日本能懸崖勒馬。他甚至還抱有這樣一種幻想:只要保衛南京的國民黨部隊能守上一到兩個月,國際形勢就有可能發生重大變化,包括蘇聯在內的聲援中國的國家就有可能出兵迫使日本收手。蔣介石希望軍隊能守一兩個月,實際上,淞滬之戰的虎頭蛇尾令國民黨軍隊元氣大傷,軍隊的戰斗力、士氣直線下滑。蔣介石匆忙拼湊起15萬軍隊保衛首都南京,但這15萬人多為從淞滬之戰潰退下來的殘兵敗將,其中還有數萬毫無戰斗經驗的新兵。這使得南京保衛戰未戰將先怯、未戰兵已慌,大敵當前,眾官兵不僅未眾志成城,反成驚弓之鳥。最后的潰敗也就難以避免了。

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