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        1. 《百家姓》是誰作的 何以“趙錢孫李”四姓開頭?
          趣歷史 2014-12-04 17:23:32

            “趙錢孫李,周吳鄭王;馮陳褚衛,蔣沈韓楊……”小時候,這部不少人都會背的《家姓》,究竟有什么來歷?

            按理說,趙姓并不是人口最多的姓氏,它為什么會排在第一位?一部字數不多的《百家姓》,其實背后有著豐富的故事。

            姓氏收錄

            《百家姓》是何時何人所作

            說起《百家姓》,我們都不陌生。民國以前,它更是與《三字經》、《千字文》一起合稱“三百千”。作為童蒙讀物,它曾是每個兒童入學后必須誦讀的書目。

            《百家姓》共收集姓氏504個,其中單姓444個,復姓60個。古時,小朋友們不僅要能背誦,還得說出其中重要姓氏的來歷和歷史名人。

            復旦大學歷史系錢文忠教授介紹,這部《百家姓》,在南宋時期就已經十分流行了。南宋詩人陸游在《秋日郊游》的一段注里寫道:“農家十月,乃遣子弟入學,謂之冬學。所讀《雜字》、《百家姓》之類,謂之村書。”當時,《百家姓》在鄉村已經成為小孩子的必讀書目,可見其流行程度。

            錢文忠推測,《百家姓》的作者,是五代十國末期、北宋初期吳越地區的一位“知識分子”。南宋王明清的《玉照新志》記載,《百家姓》是“兩浙錢氏有國時小民所著”,此印證了這一說法。不過,宋時的《百家姓》收錄的姓氏為411個,如今收錄504個姓的版本,其實是后人增補過的。

            趙錢孫李

            為何以“趙錢孫李”四姓開頭

            《百家姓》中,開頭為什么是“趙錢孫李、周吳鄭王”呢?是因為這幾個姓在當時人數較多嗎?

            有讀者認為,《百家姓》是北宋初期的人編寫的,“趙”是當時的皇姓,隨后的“錢”代表有錢,“孫”代表子孫眾多,“李”則代表桃李滿天下,合起來就是老趙家不僅有錢,子孫繁衍旺盛,門生也遍布天下。

            《玉照新志》記載:“市井間所印《百家姓》,明清嘗詳考之……其首云‘趙錢孫李’,蓋錢氏奉正朔,趙本朝國姓,所以錢次之;孫乃忠懿(錢)之正妃;又其次,則江南李氏。次句云‘周吳鄭王’皆武肅而下后妃。”

            對此,錢文忠介紹,《百家姓》中的姓氏,并不是按照這些姓的人口數量排列的。“趙”是當時的皇姓,理所當然排在第一位;錢镠曾在吳越地區建立吳越國,為當地百姓做了不少貢獻,當地人都很感念錢家的恩德,所以“錢”就放在了第二位。至于“孫”,則是吳越王錢弘俶皇后的姓;“李”是當時吳越鄰國南唐的國姓。

            其實,《百家姓》原本只是姓氏的簡單排列,成句后并沒有特定意義,但有一些句子后來演變為成語。比如,“烏焦巴弓”是《百家姓》里排在一起的四個姓氏,如今常用來比喻物體被“燒得烏黑”。

            多種版本

            甲骨文里就有關于姓氏的記載

            其實,在宋朝之前,就已經有了關于姓氏的專著,最早可追溯至甲骨文時代。目前已出土的甲骨文中,關于姓氏的記載并不少。

            戰國時期,趙國的史官編寫了一部《世本》,主要記載黃帝以來至春秋列國諸侯、大夫的姓氏、世系等。可惜,《世本》原本早已散佚,今人看到的是清代的八種輯本,合稱“世本八種”,其中以雷學琪、茆泮林的兩種輯本最好。

            《百家姓》是“四字經”,西漢時期,有人曾編纂過一部《姓氏急就篇》,除開頭外,全文以“三言詩”的形式編排,俗稱“姓名三字經”。這部書在宋代以前十分流行,也對《百家姓》的出現產生了巨大影響。

            《百家姓》問世之后,后人又先后編寫了各種《續百家姓》、《增廣百家姓》等。而如今人們最常見到的“百家姓”,其實不是宋朝時的原本,而是清代的一部《增廣百家姓》。

            “朱奉天運,富有萬方;圣神文武,道合陶唐……”這部《皇明千家姓》的編纂時間,估計眼尖的讀者能猜出來。明代的皇帝姓朱,該文的第一個姓自然非“朱”莫屬了。

            “孔師闕黨,孟席齊梁;高山詹仰,鄒魯榮昌……”到了清代,康熙皇帝親自主持編寫了一本《御制百家姓》,這部著作也是四言成句,但前兩句分別以“孔”、“孟”開頭,是尊崇儒家的意思。

            漢族有《百家姓》,古代的女真族、蒙古族也都有。如《女真字目百家姓》和《蒙古字目百家姓》均以少數民族文字書寫而成,但它們并沒有流行起來。

            你知道嗎

            李、王、張、劉姓人數最多 人數在千萬以上的姓氏有23個

            以往的“百家姓”排名,都沒有以人口數量論“英雄”。2010年,國務院開展了第六次全國人口普查,確定全國總人口為1339724852人(其中港澳臺地區人口未統計在內)。

            根據國務院人口普查辦公室統計,李姓人口約占全國總人口的7.94%,人口總數約為9530萬,在各姓氏中排在第一位;而王姓總人口約有8890萬,排在第二位;排在第三位的張姓人口約有8480萬。

            其他排名前4—10位的姓氏分別為:劉姓約6460萬人、陳姓約5440萬人、楊姓約3700萬人、趙姓約2750萬人、黃姓約2680萬人、周姓約2540萬人、吳姓約2460萬人。據統計,人口數量排名前十的姓氏總人口數約為5.5億。

            根據這項統計,我國人數在100萬以上的姓氏有153個,其總人口數約占全國總人口的90.67%;其中人數在1000萬以上的姓氏有23個,分別是李、王、張、劉、陳、楊、趙、黃、周、吳、徐、孫、胡、朱、高、林、何、郭、馬、羅、梁、宋、鄭,其總人口數約占全國總人口的56.61%。

            而袁義達、邱家儒編寫的《中國四百大姓》一書,卻將“王”姓排在了第一位,李姓是第二位。中華伏羲文化研究會華夏姓氏源流研究中心主任袁義達介紹,自宋朝以來,李、王、張三姓一直是中國人口最多的三個姓氏,其中李姓、王姓人口數量在不同時期略有不同,排序經常在伯仲之間。

            這個排名,是基于“全中國13.3億人口的姓氏數據庫(2008-2010)”進行分析的,其中包括臺灣的全部姓氏數據和香港、澳門的隨機抽樣數據。

            私家定制

            你周圍同姓的人多嗎?你知道自己的姓氏來源嗎?與你同姓同祖同宗的名人都有哪些?你們家族有沒有有趣的故事?

            歡迎加入河南商報姓氏交流群(群號159548390)參與互動,也可撥打河南商報記者電話18703833513,“私家定制”、點播姓氏報道。我們將通過《我從哪里來》根親文化系列報道,滿足你的愿望,及時推出你的姓氏來源考等相關報道。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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