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        1. 解讀:著名的三大戰役中的平津戰役是誰指揮的?
          趣歷史 2014-08-12 13:14:42

            導讀:平津戰役是解放戰爭中具有決定意義的三大戰役中的最后一個戰役。為統一平、津地區的作戰行動,中共中央軍委決定由東北野戰軍司令員林彪、政治委員羅榮桓負責統一指揮東北、華北的參戰部隊。1949年1月10日,中共中央決定由林彪、羅榮桓和聶榮臻(華北軍區司令員)組成黨的總前委,林彪為書記,統一領導奪取和管理平、津、唐等地的一切事宜。

            東北解放以后,據守張家口、北平、天津、唐山一線的國民黨華北“剿總”傅作義集團50多萬人,面臨東北、華北解放軍的聯合打擊,已成驚弓之鳥。是撤是守,蔣介石、傅作義各有打算。雖然他們的主張不同,但都對自己的力量估計過高,而對我軍的力量估計不足。因此傅作義集團采取了暫時固守平津,確保海口,以觀戰局變化的方針。

            為了防止傅作義集團南撤西退,中央軍委和毛澤東決定以東北野戰軍和華北軍區主力聯合舉行平津戰役,就地殲滅傅作義集團,并采取了這樣幾條措施:東北野戰軍立即結束休整,取捷徑以最快速度隱蔽入關,突然包圍唐山、塘沽和天津之敵,斬斷敵人海上退路;徐向前兵團停止攻打太原,楊成武兵團撤圍歸綏(現呼和浩特),以免傅作義作戰失利后向西北逃跑;通過與傅作義進行談判,將其穩住等。在平津戰役中,解放軍參戰總兵力100多萬人。

            平津戰役開始以后,我軍首先對傅作義集團進行分割包圍,截斷其西退、南撤的通路,將這只驚弓之鳥變成了籠中之鳥。然后按照毛澤東確立的先取兩頭后打中間的攻擊次序,逐一殲滅被圍困在新保安、張家口、天津等地的敵人,解放了天津和塘沽。天津解放后,北平守敵25萬人陷于絕境。為了保護北平這座文化古城,中央軍委決定繼續同傅作義談判,爭取和平接管北平。通過談判,傅作義接受毛澤東提出的“八項和平條件”,率部接受和平改編。1949年1月31日,平津戰役勝利結束,人民解放軍進駐北平城,北平宣告完全解放。

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