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        1. 揭秘真實的赤壁之戰:黃蓋沒挨打曹操未中反間計
          趣歷史 2014-05-06 10:44:25 周瑜 諸葛亮 曹操

            真實的赤壁之戰赤壁之戰,是冷兵器時代一場膾炙人口的戰爭。因為它幾乎包涵了所有戲劇性的元素,比如強弱對比鮮明的軍隊,意志力堅強的統帥,反敗為勝的曲折歷程,還有氣貫長虹的英雄故事。這場被后人認定為意義重大的戰爭,是否真如人們傳統認識的那樣傳奇多姿?是否算得上是我國歷史上“以少勝多”的經典戰役?歷史上的赤壁之戰究竟是怎樣的?

            “草船借箭”是借來的故事

            諸葛亮不曾有過“草船借箭”的事,倘若孫劉聯軍連箭都很缺乏,還談什么抗曹?“草船借箭”也并非空穴來風,而是有線索可查。據《三國志·吳主傳》裴松之注有關記載,建安十八年(213年),即赤壁之戰五年后,曹操平定關中,率大軍南下進攻孫吳。孫權領兵迎戰,兩軍戰于長江水入巢湖的濡須口。曹操受挫,堅守營壘以待戰機。一天,孫權借江面有薄霧,乘輕便戰船從濡須口闖入曹軍前沿,觀察曹營部署。曹操生性多疑,見江面水霧繚繞,孫軍整肅威嚴,恐怕有詐不敢出戰,下令弓弩齊發,箭射吳船。孫權的船很快便落滿了箭,船因一面受箭偏重,漸漸傾斜即將翻沉。孫權命令掉轉船頭,讓另一面受箭,等受重平均,船身平穩后,孫權指揮戰船列隊,緩緩離去,曹操才明白上了當。這只是發生在孫權身上的一個故事,起初他沒料到船身會中這么多箭,使得船要傾覆,僅僅是急中生智之舉罷了。他并沒有計劃“借箭”,史書中也沒說是草船。

            自從有了羅貫中的《三國演義》后,人們就以它作為衡量、品評三國人物的標準,多數人只知道有《三國演義》,是故“草船借箭”的主角便成了諸葛亮。

            “周瑜黃蓋”子虛烏有

            人們通常認為,曹軍將戰船用鐵鏈相連,使得黃蓋的火攻奏效,實際上,曹軍的戰船之間并沒有用鐵鏈相連,只是首尾相連、銜接緊密,看上去好像連成一串。實際上,曹軍的船艦是用木板兩兩釘在一起,這樣船身晃動幅度大大減小,北方兵在船上可保持戰斗力。同時,兩大船一體,可以即時進行接舷戰的步兵數量增多,特別令江東軍頭疼。江東水軍歷來以接舷戰制勝,如今接舷戰的難度變大,就不得不為此發愁了。

            據《三國志·周瑜傳》記載,武鋒校尉黃蓋向周瑜建議:“今寇眾我寡,難與持久,然觀操軍船艦,首尾相接,可燒而走也。”在孫劉聯軍無計可施的情況下,黃蓋提出的火攻的確是上佳的方案。

            三國歷史上并沒有黃蓋使用苦肉計,但詐降確有其事。黃蓋為保證無武裝的火船不被截擊而能夠順利地接近曹軍水寨,便向曹操投書詐降。《江表傳》記載了黃蓋的詐降書,他在詐降書里認為以江東地區六個郡的兵力,不能夠抵擋中原的一百多萬兵力,但是孫權、周瑜執迷不悟,妄想抵抗,所以,他為了避免與孫權、周瑜一起被消滅,情愿向曹操投降。

            曹操告訴黃蓋的代表,接受他的投降,叫他于指定的日期帶自己的部隊與兵器糧草,乘船由南岸到北岸來。

            在《三國演義》中,周瑜為了使得曹操深黃蓋不是詐降,而是真降,特地行了一番“苦肉計”,先叫黃蓋在舉行軍事會議的時候,公然冒犯周瑜。于是周瑜大怒,叫左右把黃蓋拖下去斬首,眾將領紛紛求情,黃蓋才幸免一死,改打了五十下“脊杖”,打得“皮開肉綻,鮮血迸流”。

            事實是,黃蓋不曾吃這個苦,也不需要吃這個苦。曹操很容易相信黃蓋的投降是真的,不是假的。第一,他的兵力比孫劉聯軍的兵力多。黃蓋不愿與周瑜同歸于盡,是很合乎常理的。第二,曹操所能知道的關于黃蓋的情形是:黃蓋曾經做過孫堅的部下,資格比周瑜老,屈居在周瑜之下,很可能心有未甘。第三,十幾年來各方的將領背棄原主而投降曹操的太多。曹操受降成習慣,因此對于黃蓋之降,沒有存太多懷疑之心。再說,黃蓋降了之后,落入自己的手心,想處置隨時即可,因此,曹操接受黃蓋投降。

            沒有東風,火攻依然可實施

            一直以來人們均認定,黃蓋要火攻曹軍沿江停靠的船隊,必須借助東南風。如果沒有東南風,則黃蓋火攻絕不能成功,得出這個結論是很片面的。

            黃蓋在建議長途火攻突襲時,并沒有提及風向問題,而只提到曹軍船只首尾相連,就可以進行火攻。根據中國造船工程學會理事席龍飛的《中國造船史》一書分析,中國風帆技術出現在戰國時期,而到漢代則已經很成熟了。其中以三國東吳萬震所撰寫的《南州異物志》中對帆船技術的記載最為寶貴(《太平御覽·卷七七一》),這里面就詳細記載了可利用側向風力的用盧頭木葉制成的帆,這種帆可以“其四帆不正前向”。因此,當時東吳水軍戰船裝備有可利用側風的帆是可以確定的。所以,黃蓋的火攻船,并不是必須正好沿風向開進,而可以利用側向風。加之周瑜、黃蓋多次在長江流域進行水戰,周瑜方面已經確認這個季節的風向均可以進行火攻。

            退一步說,沒有風力的作用,火攻的計劃依然可以實施。黃蓋完全可以把裝滿了干草的船,由南岸的上游之處,斜對著北岸的下游之處行駛,倚仗水力,而不是風力。蔡瑁、張允沒有卷入“反間計”。

            歷史中的蔣干確系周瑜的同郡,也確實被曹操派去說服周瑜。但并非在赤壁之戰中,裴松之注《三國志》時把它記在赤壁之戰后,并且只有蔣干勸降,沒有中周瑜的反間計。

            蔣干“有儀容,以才辯見稱”,縱然是這樣靈巧的辯士卻無法撼動周瑜的意志,歸來見曹操時蔣干還贊譽周瑜“雅量高致,非言辭所間”。這一段情節旨在為周瑜“性度恢廓、大率為得人”的胸懷作佐證,但卻成為小說家為赤壁之戰添油加醋的作料。在《三國演義》中,周瑜利用蔣干傳遞了偽造的降書,使得曹操對水軍都督蔡瑁、張允產生了懷疑,并最終處死了二人,從而為周瑜去掉了一個大隱患,成為赤壁之戰周瑜取勝的關鍵。

            事實上,史書上的蔡瑁、張允并沒有被卷入“反間計”之中,他們甚至壓根就不是曹操的水軍都督。《三國志·董二袁劉傳》談及蔡瑁、張允的時候,只論及二人是劉表的次子劉琮的黨羽,在劉表臨終時阻止劉表長子劉琦進見,而極力扶持劉琮上臺。隨即曹操南征大軍將至,第一個跳出來勸劉琮投降的卻不是蔡、張二人,而是蒯越、傅巽、韓嵩等一班劉表舊臣。這幾個人共同的特征都是躲避戰亂、客居荊州的中原人士,相比起蔡瑁、張允等荊州本土人來說,荊州的利益對于他們毫無意義,他們對挾天子以令諸侯的曹操更有好感,更愿意納土歸降以求得一官半爵。因此曹操在得荊州后也大施恩惠,給蒯越等十五人封了侯。但點名的名單里并未出現蔡瑁、張允,可見二人雖然也位列歸降眾臣中,也得到了封賞,卻實屬才智平平,未能得到重用。

            至于曹操的水軍都督是誰?史書上沒有記載,不過可以肯定的是,以曹操用人的習慣而言,不可能用外人指揮這支龐大的水師。而曹操早在年初就在鄴城掘玄武湖操練水師,相信都督水師的人選在那時就已經選定。后來的文學作品出于塑造周瑜角色的需要,虛構了蔡瑁、張允統領水師又被冤殺的情節,也使曹操水軍一擊即潰在理論上趨于合理化。

            從讀史的角度看,有關赤壁之戰的諸多細節與人們的傳統認識大有不同。當今學者對1800多年前戰爭真相的探尋能有多大程度的相合,已經無從考證,就算是更為客觀紀實的《三國志》所談及的赤壁之戰,可能也與真實戰役過程大相徑庭。今天留在人們印象中的赤壁之戰,更多的只是揚劉貶曹后一個失真的歷史故事。

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