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        1. 平津戰役簡介 國共三大戰略決戰的最后一戰
          趣歷史 2014-03-19 15:02:57

            平津戰役簡介:平津戰役是解放戰爭時期中國人民解放軍東北野戰軍和華北軍區部隊,在北平、天津、張家口地區對國民黨軍隊進行的第三個戰略性進攻戰役,也是戰略決戰的最后一個大戰役。

            在遼沈戰役結束、淮海戰役正在勝利發展之際,1948年12月上旬至1949年1月31日,東北野戰軍和華北軍區第二、第三兵團共一百萬人,聯合發動了平津戰役。當時,華北國民黨傅作義集團除有5萬余人分駐歸綏和大同外,有兵力50余萬人,位于東起北寧路的山海關、西迄平綏路的張家口的約500多公里的狹長地帶上,并以塘沽為海上通道口。

            在這部分軍隊中,屬傅作義系統的有17個師(旅),屬蔣介石系統的有25個師(旅)。在此之前,蔣介石已提出要傅率部南撤,加強長江防線。傅作義對蔣介石的排斥異己深懷戒心,不愿南撤。這時,傅作義所部為解放軍在東北的勝利所震懾,已成“驚弓之鳥”,但估計東北野戰軍在遼沈戰役后需要有3個月到半年的休整時間,到第二年春天才能入關作戰。傅作義根據暫守平津、保持海口、擴充實力、以觀時變的方針,不斷收縮兵力,先后放棄承德、保定、山海關、秦皇島等地,準備隨時從海上南逃或西竄綏遠。如果傅作義集團撤走,人民解放軍雖可不戰而得平津,但國民黨長江防線得到加強或保存較多作戰力量,這對今后作戰是不利的。因此,穩住華北敵軍,使它不迅速決策南逃或西竄,就成為能否實現就地殲敵的關鍵。

            根據中共中央的部署,東北野戰軍主力在遼沈戰役結束后不久,從1948年11月23日起,就提前結束休整,取捷徑隱蔽地揮師入關。入關的東北野戰軍和華軍區第二、第三兵團一道,以神速動作,先用“圍而不打”或“隔而不圍”的辦法,完成對北平、天津、張家口之敵的戰略包圍和戰役分割,截斷了他們南逃西竄的通路,并調動原駐天津、塘沽的國民黨軍隊第九十二、九十四、一○五軍進到北平地區。隨后按“先打兩頭、后取中間”的順序發起攻擊。

            在12月下旬連克西頭的新保安、張家口。在新保安殲滅傅作義嫡系主力第三十五軍1600人,在張家口殲敵第十一兵團部和第一○五軍5.4萬余人。1949年1月10日,中共中央決定成立由林彪、羅榮桓、聶榮臻3人組成的平津前線總前委。當東頭的天津守敵拒絕接受和平改編后,1月14日,解放軍以強大兵力發起對天津的總攻,東北野戰軍集中5個縱隊22個師34萬人在劉亞樓指揮下,經過29個小時激戰,攻克了這座堅固設防和重兵守備的大城市,天津國民黨守軍10個師13萬人全部被殲,天津警備司令陳長捷被俘。天津解放后,塘沽守敵乘船南逃。

            為了使北平這座舉世聞名的古都免遭破壞,解放軍在圍城后,派出代表同傅作義接觸。由于解放軍力量的強大和作戰部署的迅速完成,由于中共的耐心工作和各界人士的敦促,傅作義終于決心順應人民的意旨,命令所部出城聽候改編。1949年1月31日,傅部移動完畢,解放軍進入北平。北平宣告和平解放。

            平津戰役歷時64天,共殲滅和改編國民黨軍隊52萬余人,基本上解放了華北全境。在綏遠,有意地保存下一部分國民黨軍隊,經過相當時間,在董其武率領下于1949年9月通電起義,接受改編。這樣,對今后如何解決國民黨軍隊便有了天津、北平、綏遠三種方式。

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