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        1. 明朝滅亡的原因與馬有關:為何缺乏優良戰馬?
          趣歷史 2014-03-19 10:42:31

            明朝滅亡與馬有關!在傳統社會,馬是一種很好的交通工具,甚至是必不可少的交通工具,駕車、遠行、狩獵,等等,樣樣離不開馬,所以傳統社會非常注重養馬、用馬和馴馬,政府更是對馬這種動物重視有加,逐步形成了一種對馬的訓練、采購等的管理制度,因為戰馬在傳統戰爭中是不可缺少的。

            西游記里的孫悟空大鬧天宮之后,被封了個弼馬溫的職務,其實是一個養馬和管理馬匹的職務,說明古代社會是非常重視馬這種動物的,連天宮也不例外。

            明朝初建立時,政府讓官府主管養馬事務,為了獲得足夠多的優良馬匹,明朝還和滿族各部落從事馬市交易,目的是為了滿族軍事的需要。可是本屬于飼養專業搞的事情,讓官員來辦,畜牧業的發展靠行政指令和行政責任來辦,用行政辦法操作專業事務,其效果可想而知。

            后來明代政府把官辦養馬事務下放到民間,用免稅糧、補貼等辦法,鼓勵民間養馬,省去了官辦養馬的事務,效果也十分明顯。可是把官員養馬的責任推給百姓,民間養馬成了一種不得不完成的差役,加重了民眾的負擔,一些官員利用交銀代養等辦法,搜括民財,結果造成民間牧馬的逐步衰敗,馬政出現危機。

            缺乏了優良的戰馬這種很實際的作戰工具,軍隊的戰斗力必然受到致命影響。

            處于東北地區的少數民族女真族,非常善于養馬馴馬,到了滿族興起時,駿馬遍野,努爾哈赤經常查看戰馬情況,馬壯者賜酒,馬弱者鞭責,與明代后期荒于馬政的情況形成鮮明對比,明朝之所以被精于養馬馴馬的少數民族滿族擊敗,實在是理所當然的事情。

            明代后期,官場言必稱仁義,具體事務從屬于綱常禮教,面對滿族一躍千里、訓練有素的戰馬,怎會不紛紛倒下呢?

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