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        1. "

          直奉戰爭

          "

            直系勢力一蹶不振。北洋政府落入奉系軍閥手中。1922年第一次直奉戰爭奉系失敗后,于東北圖謀再起。1924年9月3日浙江軍閥發生戰爭,張作霖于4日發出響應浙江軍閥盧永祥,責備曹錕吳佩孚的通電,向山海關、熱河一帶增兵。奉軍編為6個軍,張自任總司令,并于15日致電曹錕發出挑戰。17日,曹錕發布討伐張作霖令,任命吳佩孚為討逆軍總司令。此次戰事,直系有25萬兵力,奉系有17萬兵力,雙方均有海、空軍參戰。開戰后,奉軍先后攻占朝陽、建平、赤峰、隆化等地。10月7日,奉軍發動總攻擊,占領九門天險,于九門口、石門寨、三道關等地激戰,雙方傷亡各10000余人。奉軍占領山海關后,17日進長城,長驅直入,至灤州張宗昌部,圍殲榆關一帶的直軍。11月3日,奉軍進逼天津,吳佩孚率殘部自塘沽出海南下。戰爭以直系失敗告結束。

          直奉戰爭

          直奉戰爭——直系和奉系爭奪北洋政府主導權

          第一次直奉戰爭:為何強大的奉系軍隊會失敗

            1920年直皖戰爭之后,直奉兩系軍閥共同控制了北京政權,奉系張作霖極力推薦親日的交通系首領梁士詒出任內閣總理,導致了直奉翻臉。梁士詒與直系的關系不好,奉系借梁士詒而支配中央的財政交通,借日款來贖回膠州濟南鐵路,用日款來支持奉系的擴張計劃,直系就不能容忍了,吳佩孚一再通電,揭露梁媚日賣國的丑行,梁士詒組閣近一個月,即于1922年1月25日托病請假離任出京。

            張作霖決意武力對付直系,4月10日起,奉軍就絡繹不絕進攻,改名為“鎮威軍”。4月29日,張作霖到達軍糧城,即日向部隊下達了總攻命令,直奉兩軍在長辛店、固安、馬廠一帶混戰,吳佩孚親到前線督戰,令主力在炮兵掩護下迂回到奉軍的側后,突然發起攻擊,奉軍是腹背受敵。

            第16師于5月4日臨陣倒戈,奉軍暫編1師退出了豐臺,造成了奉軍西線崩潰。吳佩孚又采取誘敵深入的戰術指揮直軍且戰且退,待奉軍進入伏擊圈后,秘密率部繞至奉軍的側面,發起猛攻,西線的奉軍也全線的潰退。

            當時第二梯隊的戰斗力比較強,是奉軍的主力,司令就是張作霖的長子張學良,兩年前張學良從東三省講武堂畢業,這也是他第一次參加如此大規模的戰役。當時吳佩孚在獲勝以后,調了嫡系的第3師、第26師到東線,并親自指揮攻擊張學良的部隊。張學良雖然率部英勇打退進攻,但是因為奉軍整體敗局已定,只好指揮部隊有秩序地向后撤退。

            在這次戰爭中,奉軍各部幾乎全線潰退,僅有的戰而能勝、退而有序的部隊,就是張學良和郭松齡統率的第二梯隊。最終奉軍在東西兩線均失敗,士兵犧牲2萬,戰敗逃亡者萬余,被直軍俘虜了4萬余人,總統徐世昌下令免除張作霖東三省巡閱使等職。

          xin_432080501161245315171_meitu_46.jpg

            6月18日,直奉兩方代表在秦皇島海面的英國克爾留號軍艦簽訂了停戰條約,以榆關就是今山海關為兩軍分界線,奉軍撤出關外,直軍也大部分撤回原防,第一次直奉戰爭宣告結束。[3]

            評價

            1、直系分為曹軍和吳軍,曹軍一直在北京城里保持中立

            2、吳軍偵知奉軍由津浦路包抄保定南方的大戰略意圖,一開戰就破壞了大段鐵路,并在德州頑強阻擊南下奉軍,同時讓東路新近歸附的曹軍26師主動側擊挑釁南下奉軍,然后詐敗,引誘奉軍放棄原有大戰略意圖,改大包抄為小包抄,轉而進攻保定東部,結果踏進吳軍預先設置的地雷陣,而且不按軍事操典,如剿匪般一味蠻攻吳軍用第一次世界大戰中形成的地雷、鐵絲電網、重機槍和炮火支援組成的現代化陣地,未能跳出吳軍的如意算盤,導致銳勇盡失,中路和西路也同樣中了吳軍的挑釁詐敗,猛攻地雷陣,結局相同。這是參謀長楊宇霆的失誤

            3、奉軍沒有預先想出破解地雷陣的好辦法,而且不按軍事操典,一味浪費炮彈清理地雷陣,卻沒有步炮協同,往往是清掉地雷反而給直軍的反攻清出了道路,步兵不擅長攻堅,攻而不克,依賴騎兵克敵,也不擅長快速構筑陣地火力點,克而不能守,陣地得而復失。這是老派將領如張景惠等的失誤

            4、張學良軍團雖然進行了包抄之類漂亮的戰術,但是被夾在李景林軍團和張作相軍團中間,施展空間有限,不能左右大戰略,主要被用于幫兩個軍團救火,只是在退卻時,展現出熟悉軍事操典的極強防御力

            5、奉軍得到日本的武器資金援助,不缺錢,所以奉軍官兵戰斗十分頑強,但是連日進攻,損失慘重,預備隊的幾個軍團來得太慢,也缺乏戰斗力和戰略上的新意,一味地填坑,最終導致崩盤。奉軍后方只有蒙蘇的威脅,比吳軍有利很多,卻不敢早些調動防御日本的吉林部隊入關,從而未能形成兵力優勢,是大帥張作霖自己的失誤。吳軍卻成功聯合了馮玉祥,穩固了后方,而全力用兵于前方

            6、吳軍轉守為攻后,依然也無法突破張學良在山海關布下的現代化陣地,說明在吳軍與奉軍都缺乏重炮部隊和傘兵空降的情況下,全世界此時的戰爭模式還是傾向于防守方的


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          結語

          軍事意義上,直奉戰爭是中國歷史上第一次有海軍、空軍參加并取得重大作用的內戰,新式武器如坦克等紛紛登場,重炮、重機槍、地雷的使用均為之前戰爭所罕有,死傷特別慘烈。政治意義上,直奉戰爭以奉系勝利而告終,從此直系軍閥退出北京政治舞臺,北洋政府開始了張作霖時代。

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