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        1. "

          九邊重鎮

          "

            九邊,又稱九鎮,是中國明朝弘治年間在北部邊境沿長城防線陸續設立的九個軍事重鎮,分別是遼東鎮、薊州鎮、宣府鎮、大同鎮、太原鎮(也稱山西鎮或三關鎮)、延綏鎮(也稱榆林鎮)、寧夏鎮、固原鎮(也稱陜西鎮)、甘肅鎮。嘉靖年間明廷于北京西北增設了昌平鎮和真保鎮,萬歷年間又從薊州鎮分出山海鎮,從固原鎮分出臨洮鎮。公元1368年明朝建國,其后百余年間,退居漠北的蒙元殘余勢力伺機南下,成為明代的嚴重邊患。明朝統治者不得不在東起鴨綠江,西抵嘉峪關,綿亙萬里的北部邊防線上相繼設立了遼東、宣府、薊州、大同、太原、延綏、寧夏、固原、甘肅九個邊防重鎮,史稱“九邊重鎮”。 是明朝同蒙古殘余勢力防御作戰的重要戰線。武宗以后,邊將冒餉,邊兵逃亡,諸如此類的事已司空見慣,邊備日漸廢池。直至明朝滅亡。

          九邊重鎮

          九邊重鎮——明朝控制邊陲的九個要地

          九邊重鎮簡介:明朝用以掌控邊陲的九大重鎮

            九邊,又稱九鎮,是中國明朝弘治年間在北部邊境沿長城防線陸續設立的九個軍事重鎮,分別是遼東鎮、薊州鎮、宣府鎮、大同鎮、太原鎮(也稱山西鎮或三關鎮)、延綏鎮(也稱榆林鎮)、寧夏鎮、固原鎮(也稱陜西鎮)、甘肅鎮。

            嘉靖年間明廷于北京西北增設了昌平鎮和真保鎮,萬歷年間又從薊州鎮分出山海鎮,從固原鎮分出臨洮鎮。

          4de9e751td859f70fa7a3&690_meitu_60.jpg

            公元1368年明朝建國,其后百余年間,退居漠北的蒙元殘余勢力伺機南下,成為明代的嚴重邊患。明朝統治者不得不在東起鴨綠江,西抵嘉峪關,綿亙萬里的北部邊防線上相繼設立了遼東、宣府、薊州、大同、太原、延綏、寧夏、固原、甘肅九個邊防重鎮,史稱“九邊重鎮”。 是明朝同蒙古殘余勢力防御作戰的重要戰線。

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          解密:明朝的九邊重鎮具體是指的那九個地方?

            遼東鎮

            總兵初駐廣寧(今遼寧北鎮市),隆慶后冬季駐東寧衛(今遼寧遼陽市)。管轄的長城東起丹東市寬甸縣虎山南麓的鴨綠江畔,西至山海關北錐子山,全長970余公里。

            薊州鎮

            總兵初駐桃林口,后移遷安寺子峪(也稱獅子峪),天順年又移三屯營(今河北遷西縣境內)。管轄的長城最初東起山海關,西至鎮邊城(原名灰嶺口),自增設昌平鎮后,西改至慕田峪(今北京懷柔區境)。管轄的長城東起山海關,西至慕田峪,全長880余公里。

            宣府鎮

            總兵駐宣府衛(今河北張家口市宣化縣)。管轄的長城東起慕田峪渤海所和四海治所分界處,西至西陽河(今河北懷安縣境),全長510多公里。

            大同鎮

            總兵駐大同府(今山西大同市)。管轄的長城東起鎮口臺(今山西天鎮縣東北),西至鴉角山(今內蒙古清水河縣口子村東山),全長330多公里。

          ca8065380cd79123ffefa02faf345982b2b78059_meitu_62.jpg

            太原鎮

            總兵初駐偏頭關(今山西偏關縣),后移駐寧武所(今山西寧武縣)。管轄的長城西起河曲(今山西河曲縣舊縣城)的黃河岸邊,經偏關、老營堡、寧武關、雁門關、平型關,東至太行山嶺之真保鎮長城,全長800多公里。因該鎮在大同、宣府兩鎮長城的內側(南邊),故又稱為內長城,而偏頭、寧武、雁門三關也就合稱為內長城的“外三關”,在東邊的薊州鎮與真保鎮的居庸、紫荊、倒馬三關就為“內三關”。山西鎮長城城墻多為沉重大石。

            延綏鎮

            總兵初駐綏德州(今陜西綏德縣),成化以后移治榆林衛(今陜西榆林市)。管轄長城東起黃甫川堡(今陜西府谷縣黃甫鄉),西至花馬池(今寧夏鹽池縣),全長880多公里,在大邊南側另有“二邊”,東起黃河西岸(今陜西府谷縣墻頭鄉),曲折迂回,西至寧邊營(今陜西省定邊縣)與大邊墻相接。延綏鎮長城遺跡多被積沙掩埋,局部地段被推平做了公路,尚有夯土墩臺存在。

            寧夏鎮

            總兵駐寧夏衛(今寧夏銀川市)。管轄長城東起花馬池,西至寧夏中衛喜鵲溝黃河北岸(今寧夏中衛市西南),全長約1000公里。寧夏鎮長城遺跡大部分埋于流沙之中,僅賀蘭山段石砌城垣有斷續殘存,并保存一段因斷層地震活動而造成的錯位現象。

            固原鎮

            總兵駐固原州(今寧夏固原市)。管轄長城為東起延綏鎮饒陽水堡西界,西達蘭州、臨洮,全長約500公里。明后期改線重建,西北抵紅水堡西境與甘肅鎮松山新邊分界。固原鎮長城遺跡除景泰縣境的“松山新邊”保存較完整外,其余地段城墻圮坍嚴重,僅保存夯土。

            甘肅鎮

            總兵駐甘州衛(今甘肅張掖市)。管轄長城東南起自今蘭州黃河北岸,西北至嘉峪關討賴河一帶,全長約800公里。甘肅鎮長城遺跡,雖經風沙剝蝕堆埋,仍大段保持連貫的墻體,在山丹境內還保存著一段兩條間距10余米的平行墻體。

            昌平鎮

            總兵駐昌平(今北京昌平區)。管轄的長城是從原薊州鎮防區劃出的渤海所、黃花鎮、居庸關、白羊口、長峪城、橫嶺口、鎮邊城諸城堡長城線,其東北起于慕田峪關東界,西至紫荊關,全長230公里。

            真保鎮

            總兵駐保定,管轄的長城北起紫荊關,經倒馬關、龍泉關、娘子關、南至故關,全長390公里。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          解密:明朝九邊重鎮發生過哪些著名的戰斗?

            明太祖北伐成功將元軍趕出了長城以北地區,并未趕盡殺絕元朝的殘存勢力雖然經常互相殘殺,有時強盛有時衰弱,但一直侵擾明朝的邊境,企圖卷土重來。因此,明朝自建國起,其國防就一直以北方邊鎮最為重要,而有明一代,北方的邊患也從未停止過,直到亡于李自成

            洪武年初,朱元璋即在北方設遼東〔今遼寧遼陽〕、大同、宣府〔今河北宣化〕、延綏四鎮,不久又設寧夏、甘肅〔在張掖〕、薊州〔今天津市薊縣〕三鎮,其鎮守為武職大臣,提督則為文職大臣。又以山西鎮巡統馭偏頭三關,陜西鎮巡統馭固原,也稱為太原、固原二鎮,這九鎮統稱“九邊”。九邊東起鴨綠江,西到嘉峪關,綿延萬里。

            朱元璋又在長城以北建立大寧衛〔今凌源〕、開平衛〔今內蒙古多倫〕、東勝衛〔今內蒙古呼和浩特〕三個軍事重鎮,作為九邊的外圍據點。于要害之地,如紫荊關、蘆花領、古北口、居庸關、喜峰口、松亭關等處,也都置兵戍守。于是東起遼陽,西經大寧、開平、興和、獨石、東勝,抵大同,數千里間,各邊鎮衛所都駐軍隊、開屯田,聲勢相連,形成了一條牢固的防務線。

          011A9AF5470B00EDFF8080811A9AD7BD_meitu_64.jpg

            其中,山海關乃關內外交通樞紐,地勢最為重要,女真興起后,以此地駐兵最多,設總兵和經略負責鎮守。駐守邊鎮的軍隊稱為邊兵,總兵官總鎮正兵,副總兵領三千人作為奇兵,游擊 也領三千人往來防御

            ,為游兵,恭將分守各路要塞,東西互相策應,為援兵。永樂年間,成祖自動放棄大寧衛,把大寧所轄邊地賞給兀良哈,從此北邊失一重鎮,遼東與宣府、大同的聯絡也因此阻絕。成祖又徙東勝左衛于永平,右衛于遵化,宣宗更因開平衛孤遠難守,徙于獨石,三衛盡失,邊防的形勢大為削弱。以前是邊防第二線的宣府、大同也逐漸變為最前線的要塞了,北方的國防線因此步步南移。不過成祖對邊防還是相當重視的,自宣府以西,直至山西邊緣,“皆峻垣深壕,烽堠相接”,凡通車馬的隘口,設百戶防守,只有樵夫牧民的隘口,也安置邊兵十人戍守。英宗正統元年,因為寧夏所轄的屯堡均在河外,曠遠難守,由總兵史昭建議,在花馬池筑哨馬營,以便策應。憲宗成化七年,延綏巡撫余子俊大筑邊城,東起黃甫川,西至定邊營,共一千二百余里。而在墻內,自偏頭至寧固,塹山堙谷,稱之為夾道。這些邊城,非常堅固,守衛的將士也英勇頑強,北人稱之為駱駝城,一時之間,西北防務頗為振飭。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          九邊重鎮的衰落:明朝的九邊重鎮如何被棄用?

            由于邊防的馳壞,也是從成祖時逐漸開始的。洪武時,平時只讓出生本地的士兵和有罪謫戍者守邊,邊境有事才調動內地的軍隊,稱為客軍。成祖卻命內地的軍隊都要輪流戍邊,稱為邊班,從此邊兵逃亡的人數逐漸多起來。

            而邊軍的屯田制度,從宣德、正統時起也開始遭到破壞,分駐各邊鎮的親王、太監、軍官等都爭相侵占屯田,役使軍丁為他們耕種,軍丁不堪虐待,逃亡的就更多了。

          ac345982b2b7d0a2d0c3a51dcbef76094b369a2c_meitu_66.jpg

            當時的正派官吏,象山西、河南巡撫于謙,宣大巡撫羅亨信深知問題嚴重,對宦官及其私黨的所為極其不滿,為維護屯田制度不廢余力,象于謙就曾“盡奪鎮將私墾田為官屯,以資邊用”,而羅亨信也迫使明廷停止征收軍丁私墾田的田稅。邊軍屯田還不能做到糧食自給,朱元璋便下令鹽商只能拿邊境的糧食來換鹽引,于是富商大賈紛紛出錢召募農民到邊境開荒墾田,邊境的糧倉也因此充足了。

            但是到了孝宗弘治年間,戶部尚書葉淇卻讓鹽商納銀換引,而由太倉供給邊境用糧,鹽商們自然不再管邊境的糧倉是否裝得滿,邊地日見荒蕪,邊境的糧價越來越貴,邊軍用糧也越來越困難了。武宗以后,邊將冒餉,邊兵逃亡,諸如此類的事已司空見慣,邊備日漸廢池。直至明朝滅亡。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          結語

          其中,山海關乃關內外交通樞紐,地勢最為重要,女真興起后,以此地駐兵最多,設總兵和經略負責鎮守。駐守邊鎮的軍隊稱為邊兵,總兵官總鎮正兵,副總兵領三千人作為奇兵,游擊 也領三千人往來防御,為游兵,恭將分守各路要塞,東西互相策應,為援兵。

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