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        1. "

          國本之爭

          "

            國本之爭,又稱爭國本。是明朝明神宗冊立太子的問題,由于中國古代有“太子者,國之根本”之說,所以被稱為國本之爭。當時有兩派分別擁護皇長子朱常洛與福王朱常洵(鄭貴妃所生)爭奪太子之位。朝廷大臣按照明朝冊立長子為太子的原則,大多擁戴皇長子朱常洛,向明神宗建議立長子為太子,然而明神宗不喜歡宮女所生的朱常洛,卻加倍寵愛鄭貴妃,并且有意立鄭貴妃的兒子朱常洵為太子,卻受到大臣與慈圣皇太后極力反對。由于明神宗遲遲不立太子,令群臣憂心如焚。朝中上下也因此分成兩個派別,明神宗與群臣爭論達15年之久。直到1601年,朱常洛才被封為太子,而朱常洵被封為福王。但是福王遲遲不離京就任藩王。直到梃擊案發生,輿論對鄭貴妃不利后,福王才離京就藩,太子朱常洛的地位也因而穩固。

          國本之爭

          國本之爭——萬歷皇帝遲遲未立太子引發的事件

          相關人物

          萬歷皇帝? --? 朱常洛?--? 朱常洵

          國本之爭簡介:萬歷朝因以何人為太子爭端不止

            國本之爭,又稱爭國本。是明朝明神宗冊立太子的問題,由于中國古代有“太子者,國之根本”之說,所以被稱為國本之爭。當時有兩派分別擁護皇長子朱常洛與福王朱常洵(鄭貴妃所生)爭奪太子之位。

            朝廷大臣按照明朝冊立長子為太子的原則,大多擁戴皇長子朱常洛,向明神宗建議立長子為太子,然而明神宗不喜歡宮女所生的朱常洛,卻加倍寵愛鄭貴妃,并且有意立鄭貴妃的兒子朱常洵為太子,卻受到大臣與慈圣皇太后極力反對。

          01300000358882124252978115867.jpg

            由于明神宗遲遲不立太子,令群臣憂心如焚。朝中上下也因此分成兩個派別,明神宗與群臣爭論達15年之久。直到1601年,朱常洛才被封為太子,而朱常洵被封為福王。但是福王遲遲不離京就任藩王。直到梃擊案發生,輿論對鄭貴妃不利后,福王才離京就藩,太子朱常洛的地位也因而穩固。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          國本之爭的背景:萬歷皇帝尤為喜愛鄭貴妃

            明神宗的長子朱常洛原為他與宮女王氏在偶然之下所生的,明神宗因為朱常洛為宮女所生,所以不喜歡他。

            王氏原為慈寧宮宮女,在張居正主政的萬歷九年(1581年)的某一天,明神宗往慈寧宮向慈圣皇太后請安。當時太后不在,王氏端水讓他洗手,他一時興起,就寵幸了王氏,王氏受孕后,太后詢問皇帝。皇帝起先不承認是他的作為,太后命人取《內起居注》查看,至此皇帝方勉強承認,后封王氏為恭妃。當時宮中稱宮女為“都人”,明神宗因此稱朱常洛為都人子,不是很喜歡他。

          14460M095091F-1BL_meitu_56.jpg

            明神宗嬪妃眾多,其中最寵愛鄭氏,萬歷十年(1582年)封為淑妃,次年進為德妃。到萬歷十四年(1586年),鄭氏生子,即朱常洵。明神宗大喜,有意進封為皇貴妃,這對恭妃冷落的態度有鮮明的對比。很快,有流言說明神宗與鄭貴妃曾到大高玄殿禱神盟誓,相約立朱常洵為太子,并且將密誓御書封緘在玉匣內,由鄭貴妃保管。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          國本之爭過程:朱常洛因朝臣擁護保住了太子

            朝臣擁護朱常洛

            明朝大臣受到流言影響,紛紛建議盡早冊立皇長子朱常洛為太子,以破除流言。萬歷十四年(1586年)鄭氏生子同年,首輔申時行上疏,列舉明英宗兩歲、明孝宗六歲被立皇太子為例,要求冊立皇長子朱常洛為太子,明神宗以長子幼弱為由,等兩三年后再舉行。這加深群臣的不安,戶科給事中姜應麟、吏部員外郎沈璟等人紛紛殊請冊立東宮。其中姜應麟措詞激烈,讓明神宗激怒,將奏折扔在地上,對身邊宦官說“冊封貴妃,初非為東宮起見,科臣奈何訕朕!”遂降旨:“貴妃敬奉勤勞,特加殊封。立儲自有長幼,姜應麟疑君賣直,可降極邊雜職。”于是貶姜應麟為大同廣昌典史。

            吏部員外郎沈璟、刑部主事孫如法相繼上言,都被處罰。但自明神宗處罰姜應麟的諭旨也指出立太子一定會依長幼順序冊立。此后大臣仍然要求冊立皇長子朱常洛為太子,并于萬歷十八年(1590年)集體要求冊立,并且杜門請辭,向明神宗施加壓力。明神宗只好推至明年、或皇子十五歲時,之后又推說延至萬歷二十年春舉行。到次年八月工部張有德提議需要動工準備,然而被明神宗以不準奏擾為由罰祿三月。首輔申時行與大臣等人上疏反對,明神宗大怒,然而申時行又暗中表明辯白。此時曝光后申時行名譽掃地,被彈劾后只得辭職返家。眾大臣或被辭職,或被廷杖。

          2015324172039.jpg

            三王并封之禮

            萬歷二十一年(1593年)年正月,明神宗加快了改立進程,下手詔給大學士王錫爵,要將皇長子朱常洛、皇三子朱常洵和皇五子朱常浩一并封王,以后再擇其中善者為太子。王錫爵既怕得罪明神宗,又怕被朝臣攻訐,于是上疏請由皇后撫育長子,如此長子就是嫡子。然而神宗只以前諭示朝臣,繼續準備行三王并封之禮,頓時朝中大嘩。

            因為王錫爵這么一說,等于明指朱常洛還需要補辦手續,質疑了朱常洛做太子的合法性,因此大臣們紛紛指責王錫爵阿諛順上,王錫爵無奈自劾請辭,而神宗也迫于眾議收回了前命。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          國本之爭的結局:朱常洛最終穩定了太子之位

            太子已經冊立,國本之爭算是結束了,可事實并不是這樣的。在冊立之后,朱常洛的待遇并沒有因此得到改善,地位也沒有因此而提升,處境依然很危險,萬歷三十一年的“妖書案”就是一個很好的證明。“妖書”的大意是說神宗立朱常洛為東宮只是迫不得已,以后必定會改立常洵。

            類似的“妖書”早在萬歷二十六年就曾出現過,名《憂危竑議》,此書假托朱東吉之口揭露了鄭氏的奪嫡之念,但由于神宗的壓制,此案未起波瀾。“妖書”在太子冊立后再次出現提醒廷臣,太子的位置依然不穩固。而且,“妖書”的出現也不是空穴來風,它與福王朱常洵之國的問題密切相關。為什么這么說呢?按照明代的定制,福王成年后就應該到他的封地去,謂之“之國”,但鄭氏對于立儲并沒有徹底死心,還是把福王留在京師不讓他就藩,而神宗也是三番兩次地故意拖延,這實際上就釋放出一個信號,那就是雖然太子已立,但隨時都有可能被福王取代。于是廷臣爭相奏請福王之國。對此,神宗先以福王府邸未成為借口;四十年冬,福王府邸落成,首輔葉向高奏請福王之國,神宗傳諭說福王將于明春之國;到了第二年春天,并不見福王有之國的跡象,于是兵部尚書王象乾又奏催福王之國,對此,神宗說親王之國的時間是在春天,現在已經快過了,明年再去吧。

          1f30e924b899a901bf6145c51d950a7b0308f5e9_meitu_59.jpg

            對于神宗的推延政策,大臣早就洞悉,不斷上疏力爭。不久,神宗又傳旨說要想讓福王之國,必須要為他準備四萬頃莊田。對于這一苛刻條件,首輔葉向高表示不可能辦到,但神宗仍堅持四萬傾之說,并不退讓,欲以此繼續拖延時間。后又傳諭內閣,欲以為太后祝壽為借口拖延之國日期,但此議為葉向高封還,他本人也以辭退力爭。后來在李太后的幫助下,福王終于四十二年三月就藩。至此,前后延續了近三十年的國本之爭才最終落下帷幕。

            國本之爭中,神宗其實是傾向于立寵妃鄭氏之子為太子的,這種意向較為明顯。若非大臣前赴后繼地疏請、力爭,朱常洛最終能否當上太子,就很難說了。如果說明代的大臣都是唯唯諾諾地聽命于皇權,他們為什么敢如此勇敢地勸諫甚至頂撞君主呢。如果說皇權是至高無上的,那么為朱常洵為何未能如愿以償地被冊封為太子呢?所以說明清時代遠不是人們想象的那樣,皇帝的意志統領一切,一切都是專制的。皇帝的行為如果不符合禮法、規則(比如國本之爭中,皇帝一意想立朱常洛為太子的行為并不符合中國傳統社會立儲時“有嫡立嫡、無嫡立長”的原則),也會遭到官員們的反對,從而在壓力下放棄自己的不合理行為。

            更進一步說,中國傳統政治文化中是存在約束皇權的力量的,只不過這種約束并非來源于制度性的強硬規定,而是官員對于政治合法性的理性堅守,以勸諫、力爭甚至請辭等各種方式表達出來。當然,我們不宜將這種約束看得過高,畢竟,這種約束并不能時時束縛住君權的越軌行為。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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          結語

            在慈圣皇太后的干預下,明神宗終于在萬歷二十九年(1601年)讓步,立虛齡已二十的皇長子朱常洛為太子,朱常洵為福王、朱常浩為瑞王、朱常潤為惠王、朱常瀛為桂王。

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