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        1. 長孫氏

          分布地區

          濟陽郡:漢濟陽縣在今河南省蘭考東北,西晉在此曾置濟陽郡,南遷后廢。濟陽縣在唐初并入冤句縣。

          歷史來源

          「長孫」源出

          長孫(Zhǎngsūn長孫)姓源出有二:1、出自北魏皇室沙莫雄,為拓跋氏所改。長孫復姓本為拓跋氏,為后魏獻文帝第三兄拓跋嵩之后。北魏道武帝拓跋圭的曾祖父拓跋郁律有兩個兒子:大兒子沙莫雄為南部大人,號拓跋氏;小兒子什翼健就是拓跋圭的祖父,拓跋圭建立北魏稱帝后,因沙莫雄是曾祖父的兒子,就賜他的兒子為長孫氏。長孫嵩后來位至太尉,封為北平王;他的侄子長孫道生屢建戰功,位至宰相,封為上黨王。拓跋嵩因有功于魏,世襲為王族大人。孝文帝時,以拓跋姓為魏朝皇族宗室之長門,故改姓為長孫氏。2、出自北魏之前有長孫氏。據《漢書·藝文志》和《孝經》上記載有長孫順“長孫氏說”二篇,西漢時期已有長孫氏。

          得姓始祖

          長孫順。關于長孫氏的來源有二個說法:一是如《通志·氏族略》和《舊唐書·長孫無忌傳》上記載所言,長孫氏出自北魏皇室的沙莫雄,因沙莫雄是南部大人,號反正跋氏,又是拓跋圭的長子,拓跋圭建立北魏稱帝后,沙莫雄就賜他的兒子嵩為長孫氏;二是《漢書·藝文志》上記載有長孫順,認為在北魏之前早有長孫氏。總之,長孫氏的得姓歷史在2000年上下。長孫氏后人尊長孫順為長孫姓的得姓始祖。

          遷徙分布

          長孫姓在大陸和臺灣都沒有列入百家姓前一百位。古代南北朝時期,北魏的王族中有一位叫拓跋嵩,因為功勞大,朝廷封他為王族大人,這個封號可以世代承襲。到了北魏孝文帝在位時,孝文帝在位時,孝文帝向漢文化學習,將拓跋姓改為元姓,孝文帝的姓名叫元宏。而拓跋嵩的后代,就改姓為長孫,意思是王族長門的子孫,這個姓和王族大人的封號也相呼應。長孫姓望族居濟陽(今山東省定陶西北,一說河南省蘭封東北)。據《郡望百家姓》記載:長孫氏望出濟陽郡。晉惠帝時將陳留郡之一部分置濟陽郡,在今河南省蘭考縣一帶。

          堂號

          霹靂堂:隋朝時候,長孫18歲即為司衛上士。突厥南侵。向皇帝口陳形勢,手畫山川,定其虛實,了如指掌,拜車騎將軍兼受降使者。突厥怕他,聽到他的弓聲,說是霹靂,故長孫氏的堂號有“霹靂堂”之稱。

          家族名人

          長孫晟:字季晟(552-609),長孫無忌之父, 隋朝洛陽人。自幼習武,年18歲為司衛上士。拜為車騎將軍兼受降使者,敵稱他的馬聲與弓聲為“霹靂閃電”,聞風喪膽。終為右驍將軍。

          長孫皇后:唐太宗李世民的皇后(601年-636年),長孫晟之女。她曾協助李世民發動 “玄武門之變”,奪取政權。李世民即位后,她常勸其提倡節儉,重視法制,信用賢臣,深得唐太宗的敬重及寵愛。嘗采“古夫人善事”,編寫了《女則》10卷,現存詩《春游曲》一首。

          長孫無忌:字輔機,長孫晟幼子。唐朝洛陽人,唐太宗皇后之兄。博涉文史,有謀略。從太宗李世民定天下,功居第一遷吏部尚書,封為齊國公,又徙趙國公、太子太師, 后為高宗時輔政大臣,進授太尉,兼修國史。后因反對高宗立武則天為后,被放逐黔州,自縊身亡。撰有《唐律疏議》。

          姓氏文化

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