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        1. 古代縣令和知縣相比 哪一個官職更大呢

            嗨又和大家見面了,今天趣歷史小編帶來了一篇關于縣令和知縣的文章,希望你們喜歡。

            縣令和知縣是中國古代的兩種官職,幾乎沒有人不知道,受到歷史影視劇和古代小說的影響,很多人認為縣令就是知縣,它們都是一縣之長。

            可是事實并非如此,從歷史的進程來看,兩者有明顯的分別。

            那么,縣令和知縣到底有什么不同?兩者之中,哪一個官職更大呢?

          image.png

            一聽“縣”,許多人會想起郡縣制,認為這個官職起始于秦朝。

            其實并非如此,戰國末期就有許多諸侯國推行了郡縣制,秦始皇統一六國后,郡縣制才在全國推行。

            在郡縣制的體系中,朝廷只管到郡、縣一級,其長官由朝廷直接任命。

            但是,縣以下還有“鄉、亭、里”三級,其長官都由本地人推薦,朝廷并不干涉。

          image.png

            秦漢時期,一縣長官稱為“縣令”或者“縣長”,但兩者也有微小區別。

            一般情況下,人口達到萬戶以上的縣,長官被稱為“縣令”,俸祿從六百石到千石不等;

            人口萬戶以下的縣,長官被稱為“縣長”,俸祿從三百石到五百石不等。

            魏晉時期,因為戰亂的關系,導致人口大減,所以縣令和縣長的衡量標準又有不同。

            《晉令》有記載,“縣千戶已上,州郡治五百已上,皆為令;不滿此為長。”

          image.png

            南北朝時期,因為中原處于割據時代,每個國家的疆域并不穩固,總有大量人口的流失。

            這時,每朝每國取消了“縣長”的說法,一縣之長統稱為“縣令”,這在《宋書·州郡志》和《隋書·百官志》中都有記載。

            到了唐朝,偶爾會出現縣令空置,由縣里其他官員臨時代理縣令的情況,這時,這個官員就被稱為“知縣事”,這也是“知縣”一詞第一次登上歷史舞臺。

          image.png

            總的來說,從秦漢到隋唐,一縣之長的稱呼為“縣令”。

            值得說的是,因為中國自漢以來的強大,千百年一直是東亞諸國的宗主國,因此縣令一詞也傳到朝鮮、日本、越南等地,縣令也是這些國家一縣之長的稱呼。

            直到宋朝,“縣令”一詞才發生改變,從唐朝中后期到宋朝初期,兩百年的藩鎮割據,引發連年戰亂,百姓流離失所。

            趙匡胤建立宋朝后,吸取前朝的經驗,一方面重文抑武,一方面改變地方官員的權力。

          image.png

            趙匡胤從唐朝的“知縣事”受到啟發,索性不再任命地方官員,而是由朝廷派遣官員代理地方事務,稱為“知事”。

            因此,以前的刺史、太守和縣令的稱呼都變了,成為后人熟悉的知州、知府和知縣。

            值得注意的是,宋朝的“知縣”比“縣令”的職權還要大,不僅管理一縣政務,還監管地方軍事。

            元朝不是漢人王朝,沒采用漢制,一縣之長既不是縣令,也不是知縣,而被稱為“縣尹”。

          image.png

            明朝初期,為了掌控地方,朱元璋沿襲了宋朝的“知縣”制。

            清朝雖然不是漢人王朝,但是大部分制度都是沿襲明朝的,“知縣”便是如此。

            那么,縣令和知縣有什么區別呢?兩者雖然都是一縣之長,但“縣令”是地方性官員,而“知縣”卻是朝廷選派的。

            從官職的高低來說,縣令大多是“正五品”官員,而知縣則是“正七品”官員。

            (參考文獻:《晉令》《宋書》)

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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