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        1. “胡服騎射”發生在趙國,為什么沒發生在其他諸侯國?

            中國歷史上的戰國時期,不僅是一個硝煙彌漫的時期。這段歷史時期,也充斥著諸多的歷史變革,而這些變革對于后世歷朝歷代都產生了極其深遠的歷史影響。而當我們將視角全部都放在戰國時期秦國身上的時候,卻總在不經意間忽略了,戰國晚期另一個諸侯國的強勢崛起,這個諸侯國便是趙國

          image.png

            歷史上趙國的崛起,同“胡服騎射”有著最為直接的關系。這是因為,在騎兵這個高機動性兵種出現之后,趙國憑借著騎兵帶來的巨大優勢,在短時間內,國力便得到了極大的擴充。并且,騎兵不僅在戰國歷史上產生了巨大的漣漪,對于此后的中國歷史來說,“胡服騎射”也產生了不小的影響。而引領這場變革的君主趙武靈王,更是被超稱為中國的彼得大帝。那么,戰國時期的“胡服騎射”為何會發生在趙國,而沒有發生在別的諸侯國?

            首先,我們需要了解的是,當時趙、燕、秦這些北方諸侯國,有著漫長的邊境線。而在戰國歷史上,這些邊境線所劃分的則是游牧與農耕兩大文明。正是在這樣的背景下,邊患問題成為了趙國揮之不去的夢魘。在“三家分晉”之后,趙國國力在相當長的時間里都很孱弱,便同邊患問題的掣肘,有著很大的關系。這個時候,我們會有疑問了,那就是燕、秦兩國也有邊患問題,可為什么沒有催生出“胡服騎射”這樣巨大的變革?出現這樣的情況,實際上同趙國地緣政治環境的急劇惡化,有著很大的關系。

            歷史上的趙國,地緣政治的惡劣程度要遠甚于秦、燕兩國。這是因為,在“三家分晉”之后,趙國首先要面臨的便是魏國的影響,同時,中山國的存在對于趙國來說,更是一個巨大的威脅。同燕、秦兩國能夠固守一隅不受外界影響不一樣的是,趙國在面對邊患問題以及中山國問題的同時,還要面對來自中原強國的壓力。而正是在這些因素的共同作用下,趙國的國力一直都處在不斷被消耗的尷尬境地。

          image.png

            由此可見,受到地緣壓力沖擊較小的燕國,并沒有催生出“胡服騎射”這樣的變革。而地緣壓力一直居高不下的趙國,自然而然會催生轟轟烈烈的變革運動。這樣的情況,同“商鞅變法”的情況十分類似。因為秦國的變法,歸根結底便是魏國過度彈壓秦國的一個結果,趙國也是如此。

            當然,在戰國時代一個諸侯國要想進行變革的話,沒有一代雄主帶領的話是不行的。恰巧在這個趙國孱弱的歷史節點上,趙武靈王登上了歷史的舞臺。這位君主,所以能夠稱為戰國時代的一代雄主,實際上同其一生的作為有著很大的關系。實際上,在趙武靈們我那個剛剛登上趙國君主寶座的時候,對于局勢便有清醒的認識。根據史料記載在諸侯相王的時候,趙武靈王曾言道“無其實,敢處其名耶?”

            正是在這次諸侯相王之后,趙武靈王將率領趙國走向一條變革的道路。在一次同游牧民族的戰斗中,趙武靈王發現胡人的騎兵,身著短衣手拿弓箭的胡人,在戰場上來去如風,殺的趙軍大敗而歸。這樣的情況下,啟發了趙武靈王進行“胡服騎射”改革的決心。而在那個時候,胡人的衣著,一直都被中原諸侯國當做落后的標志。為了能夠順利的推動變革,趙武靈王則率先身著胡服。并且,他還親自勸說百官、宗室,正是在這樣的背景下,“胡服騎射”最終在趙國得以順利的推行。

          image.png

            后面的事情,我們就都清楚了,趙國的實力在短時間得到了飛速的增長。而趙國在這之后,也完全成為了戰國晚期唯一能和秦國單獨抗衡的存在。由此可見,趙武靈王的雄才大略,對于趙國在戰國時代的變革,有著很大的促進作用。如果換做別人的話,這場變革很有可能中途夭折。

            歷史就是這樣,趙國的崛起,實際上同趙國所面臨的地緣政治壓力與趙武靈王的雄才大略,有著很大的關系。正是在這樣的背景下,使得“胡服騎射”這場淘汰馬拉戰車時代的變革,最終發生在了趙國,而沒有發生在其他諸侯國。

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