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        1. 賽約河之戰:蒙古騎兵是如何做到客場作戰以少勝多呢?

            賽約河之戰:蒙古騎兵是如何做到客場作戰以少勝多?

            賽約河之戰是在匈牙利賽約河畔,由蒙古第二次西征軍六萬鐵騎對戰匈牙利十余萬軍隊的戰爭。此戰蒙古軍以六萬軍隊,戰勝了匈牙利10萬軍隊。戰后,蒙古人控制了整個東歐,為金帳汗國的建立奠定了基礎。此戰,是世界歷史上著名的以少勝多的圍殲戰之一。

          image.png

            那么,蒙古騎兵是如何做到客場作戰以少勝多的呢?

            1239年,蒙古軍隊占領斡羅斯(今天的俄羅斯)三大公國后。盡管已經一路打到了現今烏克蘭以東,但元太宗窩闊臺卻并沒有停下來的意思。1240年,窩闊臺下令軍隊進攻馬札兒(匈牙利)。在留下3萬人鎮守南斡羅斯后,蒙古剩余12萬人兵分三路:南路由合丹率領3萬人,繞過喀爾巴阡山脈,自南迂回前進;北路由拜答兒率領3萬人外擊波蘭;中路6萬大軍以拔都和速不臺為統帥,越過喀爾巴阡山脈,向匈牙利布達佩斯進軍。1241年4月,蒙古軍隊兵臨匈牙利佩斯城下。

            需要注意的是,布達佩斯本來是兩座城市,其中多瑙河以東的名叫佩斯,匈牙利國王貝拉四世常常在這里活動。多瑙河以西的是布達,也是匈牙利的首都。盡管蒙古士兵已經開始進攻佩斯城,但貝拉四世卻認為,蒙古士兵根本無法攻下城池,而且他們也沒有能力越過多瑙河直取首都。因此貝拉四世只是在佩斯城中集結了10萬的匈牙利軍隊,并不急于出戰。貝拉四世的策略,無疑是非常正確的。蒙古士兵跋山涉水而來,在城池久攻不下的情況下,士氣難免會受到打擊。等到他們泄氣之時,匈牙利軍隊再以人數優勢一擁而出,定能夠大破蒙古軍。

          image.png

            眼見匈牙利人以逸待勞,速不臺故意賣出破綻,率軍前往漷寧河引誘匈牙利。與此同時,拔都率領大部隊開始撤退。貝拉四世眼見敵軍萌生退意,便開始派遣軍隊乘勝追擊。而蒙古軍隊則始終以不緊不慢的速度進行著撤退,最終來到了賽約河邊。貝拉四世在河西安營,而拔都的部隊則聚在河東。

            4月10日夜,拔都向河西的匈牙利軍隊發起猛攻。雙方很快陷入膠著,拔都軍開始出現敗退跡象。但與此同時,在河下游的速不臺命令軍隊結筏潛渡,蒙古人迂回到了匈牙利軍隊側后方發起攻擊。受到兩面夾擊的匈牙利軍隊陣型大亂,拔都率軍趁勢奪取了橋梁。到了11日早上,速不臺、拔都兩路軍隊已經悄然改變了陣型,蒙古人將匈牙利軍隊圍了個水泄不通。

            不過,自古以來,有經驗的將軍絕不會始終將敵人四面包圍,因為這樣一來反而有可能迫使對手亡命攻擊。在將匈牙利軍四面包圍后,拔都突然放出了西面的一條路。匈牙利軍隊看到希望后,開始向西逃竄。蒙古軍隊趁機三面伏擊,這就是著名的“圍三缺一”戰法。最終,匈牙利在此戰中死亡7萬人,總死傷人數超過了9萬。而國王貝拉四世。也只得獨身逃向了亞德里亞避難。

          image.png

            賽約河之戰后,佩斯城被蒙古軍隊攻破,多瑙河河畔也落入了蒙古的統治中。這一片區域,后來被納入了拔都的金帳汗國的版圖。說起來,蒙古軍隊之所以能取得這場戰役的勝利,除了拔都和速不臺的計策戰術之外,蒙古軍隊的作戰素質同樣不可忽略。

            我們知道,蒙古士兵向來以彪悍勇猛著稱。他們能夠征服亞洲大陸,甚至很大一部分歐洲土地,這都與他們士兵的作戰素質有很大的關系。

            作為一個生活在馬背上的民族,蒙古士兵自小就擅長騎射。在冷兵器時代中,弓箭是一種很有效的殺傷性武器。蒙古士兵作戰,會首先避免與敵軍近身肉搏,保持自身的優勢。同時,合理利用戰馬的機動性,拉開與敵軍的距離。在這樣的情況下,敵軍想要對蒙古士兵造成殺傷,首先自身就會付出很大的代價。并且最可怕的是,一個蒙古騎兵通常會配備有多匹戰馬,而且蒙古戰馬的生存能力極強。在戰馬的加持下,蒙古人只需要不斷地勝利,就會有越來越多的資源,這也是蒙古人能夠遠征歐洲的一個重要原因。

          image.png

            賽約河之戰的影響

            賽約河戰役戰場途徑俄羅斯、波蘭、西里西亞及摩拉維亞,最終進入了匈牙利、羅馬尼亞。在此次戰爭之中,成吉思汗家族各支均有代表人物參加,而這次戰爭最大的益處直指成吉思汗長子術赤長子拔都。

            首先,拔都是整個蒙古軍的總統帥,起著關鍵的指揮與領導作用,至少在形式上是如此(雖速不臺在戰略指導上做得更多,但這一切仍是以拔都為名開展的)。結果亦不出所料,拔都一人是戰爭最大的受益者。其次,這次戰爭不僅僅使最后一批欽察突厥人敗北,更是征服了里亞贊、特維爾、蘇茲達爾、基輔以及加利奇諸羅斯公國。兩百多年的時間之中,它們始終作為金帳汗國的屬國而存在。作為一種十分嚴格的封臣關系。其封臣關系具體表現為:可汗有任意廢立羅斯王公的權利,而對于這些王公們,到伏爾加河下游的可汗營地“在可汗面前磕頭”,又是一種必須履行的義務。該種謙卑從屬之政策源起于雅羅斯拉夫大公。

          image.png

            公元1243年,他第一次來到拔都面前,誠摯表示了其效忠之心,喜受拔都賞識,承認其為“羅斯諸王公之首”。而1250年加利奇王公丹尼勒亦前來向拔都表示臣服,并提出為他舉行任職儀式的要求。最后,是最明顯亦最重要的戰爭意義。此次戰役可謂是世界史上以少勝多圍殲戰的最成功的案例之一。

          免責聲明:以上內容源自網絡,版權歸原作者所有,如有侵犯您的原創版權請告知,我們將盡快刪除相關內容。

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