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        1. 周朝是怎么滅亡的?“債臺高筑”竟出自周天子高臺逃債?

            周朝是怎么滅亡的?“債臺高筑”竟出自周天子高臺逃債?下面趣歷史小編就為大家帶來詳細介紹,接著往下看吧~

            周赧王姓姬,名延,東周第25位君主,也是東周最后一位君主,在位59年。周赧王在位期間,周王室已經十分衰弱。當時秦國日益壯大,不久就要收拾周朝,周赧王憂心忡忡。這時,楚國派使者請周赧王以天子名義,號令各國協力攻秦。姬延大喜,命令西周公簽丁湊起了一支五六千人的軍隊。可是,缺少武器、糧餉,周赧王便向境內的富戶籌借軍資,付給他們借券,答應周軍班師之日以戰利品償還。

            公元前256年,周赧王命西周公為大將,率領五千軍隊伐秦,并約六國諸侯到伊闕會合一起出擊。不料,等了3個月,除了楚、燕兩國派了些兵來以外,其他四國的兵馬都失約不來。這樣,總兵力不過幾萬,遠不是幾十萬秦兵的對手,西周公只好帶著自己的人馬無功而回。西周的富戶見周軍回來,紛紛持借券向姬延討債。他們從早到晚聚集在宮門外,喧嘩不止,聲音直傳入內宮。周赧王愧悔不及,又無可奈何,只好躲到宮后的一個高臺上避債。周朝人將這個高臺稱為“逃責(債)臺”。

            堂堂周天子何以落到狼狽討債境況呢?其實,這是周王朝滅亡的一個前奏曲。西周時期的周王室,無論土地、人口、軍事、經濟力量都是最強大的,各諸侯國都認真地奉周王室為天下共主。公元前770年,周平王東遷,一些諸侯國發展起來,周王室的力量卻逐步衰微,已是昔日黃花,沒有了往日的輝煌。主要表現為以下一些特征。

            一是版圖縮小。周平王東遷初期,周王室尚擁有以成周為中心的方六百土地,還可堪稱“小康”。然而,這種境況,周平王的子孫卻不能維持下去。周惠王二十二年(公元前655年)晉獻公借道于虞國滅掉虢國,是周王室盛衰一大變局,關中的大片土地即不能為周王室所有,只能局促在東部的數百里間,從而降為二等諸侯國。直至周襄王十七年(公元前635年),周王室所擁有的土地,東西已不足二百里,地位更加下降。

            二是財力窮困。東周王室土地大為縮小,收入銳減,財力窮困當是自然之理。其實,周王室到處“乞討”索求的窘況,在春秋初年就顯露了出來。周平王死后,繼位的桓王無力置辦喪葬用品,于是派人向魯國索求。周襄王時沒有乘車,也派人到魯國去討。周襄王死后,為置辦喪具開銷,又派人向魯國要錢。王室地盤小,財力弱,諸侯國與王室的地位自然顛倒了過來。

            三是天子權威迭落。東遷以后,周王定期到全國各地視察考核諸侯政績的“巡狩”再沒有進行過,諸侯也不朝見天子“述職”了。按照舊禮制,諸侯新君王繼位的“請命”和“受命”儀式也沒有了。在諸侯的爭霸斗爭中,周天子只是被用作霸主號令諸侯的旗號,他們打著“尊王”的旗幟,實際是為了“尊”他們自己。更有甚者,鄭莊公公然開著軍隊搶割周人麥谷,同周王對攻,并射箭擊中周桓王肩頭。對這個“大逆不道”行為,卻沒有一位諸侯國站出來表示譴責。

            四是諸侯僭越禮制。戰國時期,周王室權威微弱。各諸侯國內的貴族紛紛起而打倒國君,新的貴族起而為諸侯。這些新貴族先在國內奪取了政權,后又稱“王”,向天子的目標進軍。從此,周天子獨專的“王”號喪失,成為一個小諸侯國君,而諸侯卻都成了名符其實的大國“天子”了。

            五是王室內亂不斷。戰國時期,小小的周王室發生分裂,分成東周和西周兩個小國。周赧王即位(公元前314年)后,東周和西周實行分別治理,各自為政并互不相統屬。毫無力量的周赧王又從成周徙都西周王城,只是寄居于西周君下。西周和東周這兩個小政權,后竟至互相攻伐,兵戎相見。

            六是宗法制度崩壞。西周時期的王權,是和宗法制度上的“大宗”“小宗”緊密相結合的,被稱為“王綱”。進入春秋以后,東遷后的周王朝力量削弱,而諸侯國力量強大起來,諸侯與周天子間大宗、小宗的關系就動搖了。宗法制度的破壞,使得固有的社會秩序崩潰。

          image.png

            這些特征已經預示著周王室的衰微破落,命脈已經不絕如縷。周赧王時,周朝的既小又窮,可是還要不自量力,竟然去碰撞人人畏懼的秦國,這個“把頭伸到餓虎口中的壯舉”,不但欠了一屁股債被人催討,而且激怒了秦王國。周赧王五十九年(公元前256年),秦昭王派將軍摎討伐西周。西周君忙趕到秦國叩頭謝罪,把所轄的36個城邑和人口3萬全部獻給秦國。不久,西周君和赧王相繼死去,秦國把周王室傳國的九鼎取去,西周滅亡。西周滅亡后七年(公元前249年),秦莊王滅東周。至此,東、西周兩個小政權皆被秦滅。

            周王朝的滅亡教訓是深刻的。周朝建政之初,周公等人以殷為鑒,為政以正、勤、廉、儉為本,從而使政局保持了相當長時間的相對穩定。武、成、康三代,政治清明,是周的黃金時代。但到第四代昭王時,就出現了危機。周穆王繼位后,制定刑律,減輕刑罰,施善政于天下。穆王以后,周朝逐漸衰微,共王、懿王、孝王、夷王四代,王朝內外交困,國內矛盾日益尖銳。

            長期的矛盾逐漸積累,使王朝產生了深刻的危機。周厲王用佞臣,施暴政,被國人放逐。周宣王一度“中興”,可幽王是個昏淫之君,把“赫赫宗周”斷送了。周平王即位后只得遷都洛邑,西周政權傾覆。周王室衰敗之勢已經不可挽回,但周朝的君王們還要擺周天子的派頭,既要維持王室的各種開銷,又要給來朝的諸侯以賞賜,財政必然發生很大的困難。“天子不求私財”的面子也就顧不得了,到處伸手索討已成常態。

            在周王室衰敗過程中,“政以賄成”不能不說是一個重要原因。春秋戰國是中國古代社會發生第一次劇烈變革的時期,周王室衰微,諸侯國興起,私有制發展,傳統的淫逸暴斂的貪賄方式和新型的以財賄作政治交易的方式交融一起,因貪賄結成的惡果反復出現。天子貪圖享樂,喜好聲色,親近權奸。卿大夫貪利私欲,各地斂財,富有積聚。

            《詩經?大東》中云:“小東大東,杼柚其空。”揭露東方的大小諸侯國被征斂得連織機上的織品都空蕩蕩了。《詩經?大雅》云:“人有土田,汝反有之;人有民人,汝覆奪之。”講的是譴責高官貴族對人民的強取豪奪。于是,如柏楊先生所說的那樣:“這個立國八百七十九年,被儒家學派贊不絕口的周王朝,在沒有一聲嘆息中滅亡。

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