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        1. 布爾戰爭是什么?布爾人和英國之間發生了什么

            布爾戰爭是什么?下面趣歷史小編為大家詳細介紹一下相關內容。

            非洲是一片古老的大陸,在撒哈拉沙漠以南的遼闊土地上,生活著眾多黑人族群和部落。然而進入近代以來,南非逐漸形成了一個白人新興民族,被稱作為布爾人。

            布爾人的出現最早可以追溯到15世紀晚期,那時正是地理大發現初期、大航海探險的活躍期。此后伴隨著荷蘭的東印度公司在開普敦周圍的殖民統治和法國宗教戰爭的影響,眾多荷蘭和法國胡格諾派新教徒遷往南非并逐漸形成農場經濟,逐漸融合成為一個新的族群。

          image.png

            “布爾”意指農民、農場主的意思,代表了這個新民族的社會結構特征和職業分布。然而好景不長法國大革命的爆發之后,荷蘭本土于1795年被法國占領,而英國也乘機出動艦隊擊敗開普敦周邊的荷蘭民兵武裝,占領了這片荷蘭殖民地

            拿破侖當政期間,英國曾短暫交還此地給荷蘭。但當拿破侖失敗之后,又一次占據開普敦殖民地并開始限制布爾人的農場經濟。1834年,英國人頒布條例廢除奴隸制,對以奴隸農場經濟為主業的布爾人造成極大沖擊。為了躲避英國人的政策高壓,布爾人離開開普敦殖民地,深入南非內陸遷徙,并于1840年擊敗祖魯人,建立了納塔利亞共和國。

          image.png

            此時的大英帝國如日中天,正處于日不落時代的巔峰,制定了通過南方南非和北部埃及兩個方向,將英國在非洲殖民地南北打通的殖民政策。于是尾隨布爾人的腳步,英國人又一次滅亡了布爾人的政權,迫使布爾人再次遷徙,并于1849年建立了南非共和國。

            布爾人的南非共和國與英國保持了相互承認的對等關系,但由于對非洲南部土著祖魯人的欺壓,布爾人的南非共和國面臨長期嚴峻的武裝沖突,財政出現嚴重危急。農場經濟的局限性和優良土地被英國侵占的現實,使得布爾人在20多年后無奈的接受了英國人的要求,并入了英國殖民地。

          image.png

            雖然雙方達成了協議最終合并在一起,但布爾人和英國人不論是經濟模式、文化習俗還是政治形態等方面均存在巨大差異,所以布爾人的離心力依舊十分強烈。1880年12月,布爾人市民群體和英國駐軍發生沖突,布爾人的民兵組織隨即伏擊了英國援軍,第一次布爾戰爭爆發。

            當時的大英帝國勢力遍布全球,而布爾人只是一個剛剛形成的少數人口族群。但布龍克霍斯特干河戰役中,英軍的247人中有77人陣亡、157人受傷,布爾民兵卻僅有2人死亡、4人受傷,一時間布爾人士氣大振。

          image.png

            次年1月,英軍進一步派遣增援部隊前往德蘭士瓦,總數千余人。然而在納塔爾與德蘭士瓦邊境的朗峽受到了受到布爾民兵方面茹貝爾將軍的阻擊。此戰中英軍有93人被打死、133人受傷、54人被俘,帶隊的英軍司令科利將軍被擊斃。而布爾民兵方面僅有1人陣亡、5人受傷。

            迫不得已,英國和布爾人簽署了停戰協議,后又補簽《比勒陀利亞協定》。在此協定中規定了布爾人控制的德蘭士瓦具有自治地位,但英國同時控制德蘭士瓦的對外關系和戰時借道的權益。第一次布爾戰爭之后,雖然有一個大體妥當的結局,但大英帝國卻已淪為歐洲列強嘲諷的標靶,尤其被以強軍崛起的德國所輕視。

          image.png

            當時布爾人主要控制德蘭士瓦和奧蘭治兩個地區。其中奧蘭治河地區于1867年第一次布爾戰爭之前就已經發現了鉆石,而1884年,德蘭士瓦又發現了當時世界上規模最大的威特沃特斯蘭德金礦。礦產資源和稅收利潤的增長,促使布爾人的經濟突飛猛進,同時也加劇了與英國之間的摩擦。英國人在對財富的覬覦和對戰敗的不甘下,又一次于1899年發動了第二次布爾戰爭。

            在第二次布爾戰爭中,英國人不論是兵力人數還是武器裝備都占據優勢。但在戰爭的前期,英軍對布爾軍隊的戰損比例依舊處于一邊倒的情況。英軍損失慘重,但布爾人卻似乎并未損失多少人馬,如此慘敗讓世界大跌眼界,也動搖了大英帝國的政治地位。

          image.png

            為了徹底拿下南非,英國在本土緊急征兵,部署在南非打擊布爾人的部隊一度高達40多萬人,并且開始采取各種殘酷手段并執行了三光政策,在南非建立數不清的集中營來關押布爾人的平民婦孺和兒童。

            最終由于寡不敵眾,整個德蘭士瓦和奧蘭治均被英國吞并。然而此戰對大英帝國造成了沉重的打擊。經濟層面,英軍在南非消耗了大約2億2千萬英鎊的軍費,國庫積蓄被揮霍一空;政治層面,西方世界發起了同情和聲援布爾人的運動,在荷蘭和比利時甚至組建了眾多民間團體向布爾人券贈戰時流動醫院和醫療設備。同時有來自荷、比、德、法、美、俄、愛爾蘭、意大利以及斯堪的納維亞國家的上千名人,作為志愿兵遠渡重洋與布爾人并肩作戰。這造成大英帝國的國家形象在西方一落千丈。

          image.png

            布爾戰爭不僅重塑了大英帝國、重塑了整個國際地緣政治,同時也是世界外交史、政治史和軍事史的重大轉折點。在戰爭中,布爾人廣泛運用現代游擊戰術,并因此促使英軍不得不將先前一直身著的鮮艷紅色軍服改為隱匿色軍服。面對英軍的大兵壓境而不得不執行的全民皆兵政策在后來被二戰中的德國、瑞士和戰后以色列等國廣泛借鑒,并樹立了總體戰和全民皆兵的思想。英軍為了對付布爾人全民皆兵的情況而執行殘酷的重壓政策,所出爐的焦土政策、集中營和三光政策,后來被納粹德國和日本法西斯所借鑒。同時也正是在布爾戰爭中,誕生了諸如野戰電話、探照燈等諸多戰爭工具。

          image.png

            二戰之后,布爾人再次主導了南非的政治格局,并于1961年退出了英聯邦。然而雖然大英帝國殖民者存在諸多暴行,布爾人同樣劣跡般般。由于對農奴莊園經濟的依賴和奴隸制文化的影響,布爾人具有強烈的種族主義傾向,并從1948年開始就正式實行種族隔離制度,直至1994年南非舉行多種族大選后,布爾人的政權才宣告結束。

            時至今日,布爾人這一稱呼因為存在強烈的種族主義關聯,已經很少被使用了。留存在南非的布爾人,如今的正式稱呼已經演變為依據其語言命名的阿非利卡人。至于英國,在經歷了戰后民族獨立風暴之后,早已不復當年的氣魄了。

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