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        1. 關于蒙文通的評價如何?對中國有著怎樣的影響

            蒙文通是近代著名經學家廖平的學生,他對廖平經學的修正、發揮與發展,突現了他對今文學家的理想制度及其思想實質的揭示和闡釋。

            修正發展

            歷史上,漢代的經學分為今文經學和古文經學。近代著名今文經學家廖平首倡以“禮制”的不同來區分今古學,他的經學是經學史上的高峰。蒙文通作為廖平的學生,不只是繼承了廖平的學說,更重要的是進行了修正、發揮和發展。

            廖平對今文學主要是以地域分派,對古文學主要是以典籍分派,他的劃分是不夠科學和規范的。為此,蒙文通修正了廖平區分今古學派別的說法。

            蒙文通認為,在古文學的組成中晉學占了大部分,此外還有壁中書和流傳于民間的學問。

            蒙文通指出: 《六藝》是魯人之學,《谷梁》是魯學,魯學是《六經》的正宗,是孔子學說的嫡派,是謹守舊義的、謹守師傳的、純正的儒學。《伏生尚書》、《夏侯尚書》、《田何易》、《梁丘易》、《魯詩》、《后氏禮》都是魯學。

            在蒙文通看來,漢武帝獨尊的儒學,不是真正的儒學,已經是變了味的了。這種儒學拋棄了儒家的理想和孔子學說的真諦。傳授儒家真正理想的的人是有生命危險的,他們只能進入秘密狀態進行傳播,于是就形成了漢代的緯書之學。但是,今文學的傳播并沒有絕跡,儒家的“微言大義”逐漸由秘傳轉入到了躬行實踐,今文學的《齊詩》和京房《易傳》中講的“革命”思想進入了道教,成為黃巾起義的指導思想了。

          image.png

            闡釋內涵

            蒙文通對今文經學研究的最大貢獻是:他把今文學的主要制度歸納為五種,并且詳盡地進行了分析,深刻地揭示了今文學思想的實質和意義。蒙文通認為,漢代今文學有內學和外學之分,內學中蘊含著儒家的“微言大義”,外學不但背叛了今文學的革命思想,也不研究“禮制”,對禮儀制度是“幽冥而莫知其源”,陷入了“分析文字,煩言碎辭”的煩瑣哲學之中,這種學風在歷史上產生了深遠的極壞的影響。蒙文通沒有走康有為的路子,而是沿著廖平的學術方向往前走,他著重去分析今文學的理想制度,通過其理想制度的分析來揭示今文學思想的革命性和進步性,從而大大豐富了今文學思想的內涵。

            主要來源

            蒙文通認為,對今文學影響最大的是墨家和法家。

            首先,今文學家的進步思想深受墨家思想的影響,其影響主要有以下幾個方面:今文學家的“平等思想”來源于墨家;今文學家理想制度的的中心“明堂”,也來源于墨家;今文學家吸取墨家最顯著的是《禮運》中的大同說;“素王”說導源于墨家;《孝經》思想也來源于墨家。

          image.png

            其次,蒙文通還認為,漢代今文學還吸收了法家的思想。就是說,今文學家吸收了法家反對“世襲貴族”的思想,因為世襲制度是與“一律平等“的思想相對立的;其次,還吸收了法家“大一統”、“尊王”等方面的思想。

            所以,在蒙文通看來,由于今文學經過吸取了各家的思想,發展和總結了先秦儒家和諸子的思想,其中最顯著的是吸收了墨家和法家的思想;在創樹理論時,重視制度,詳于制度。因而使今文學的思想更豐富、更宏大、更全面、更具體,從而適應了當時社會歷史的要求,滿足當時統治者的需要。這不僅有其歷史發展的必然,也有其內在的邏輯依據。

            從上可以看出,蒙文通在繼承廖平經學的基礎上,對之進行了“修正”,有所發展,有自己“獨立”于廖平的東西,這些“修正”和“獨立”的部份,就是蒙文通對今文經學研究所做出的貢獻。

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