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        1. 李濟參與了哪些考古?對中國考古界有著怎樣的影響

            1928年至1937年,他主持了震驚世界的河南安陽殷墟發掘,使殷商文化由傳說變為信史,并由此將中國的歷史向前推移了數百年。直至今日,它依舊被視為人類文明史上最重大的發掘之一。 在中國現代學術史上,這是一個相當重要的名字———李濟。

            我們關于商代的知識很大程度上是由李濟給我們劃定的。他領導的安陽發掘,對20世紀整個下半世紀的中國考古學的發展起了決定性的影響———包括中國社科院考古所所長夏鼐、臺灣中研院史語所所長高去尋在內的中國考古學界領袖人物,都是在安陽接受的考古學訓練。

          image.png

            已故的考古人類學大家張光直以臺灣中研院院士、美國國家科學院院士、哈佛大學教授的權威身份,曾對自己的導師李濟做過評價:近60年的歲月里,一開始作為中國考古學之父,隨后又作為中國考古學掌門人,他的學術思想一直在中國這門學問的發展中占據支配地位。 如果不將張光直所說的“中國學界”縮小為臺灣學界,那么他的判斷顯然過于樂觀了。李濟在1948年年底隨史語所遷臺,這一選擇很難以優劣論,但其所造成的尷尬局面卻是顯而易見的。

            1959年,以《考古》雜志為代表的大陸考古學界對李濟發起了猛烈的“圍剿”。李濟的兒子李光謨甚至還收藏了當年的一期《考古》,整整一期都在批判李濟。此后,和許多政治上選擇錯誤的著名學者一樣,這個名字逐漸消逝在我們的閱讀視野中。

            不知道李濟對于此種“圍剿”的反應如何,但他曾對1949年后大陸的考古發掘報告提出過嚴厲的批評,認為其中缺乏實際材料,充滿了政治術語,對出土地、器物、尺寸等內容居然都號稱“保密”。

            “我想,按照他一貫的標準,這些根本都夠不上考古學。”李光謨感嘆道。

          image.png

            直到后來西安半坡遺址的發掘報告出來以后,李濟對大陸考古學的印象才有所改變,他自己的文章中也開始引用大陸學界的資料。

            李濟去世后,人們回憶:“他是一個被上級、同僚、晚輩、學生害怕的人,但他對待真心為學的人則給予最大的幫助。”其實豈止“害怕”,在一些人眼中,此人簡直就是可惡。臺灣名人李敖就曾寫過文章,稱李濟為“最后一個迷人的學閥”。李濟因固執而獲罪為“學閥”,但饒是刻薄如李敖,也從不否認他身上“迷人” 的一面。 李濟人生最輝煌的一頁是在殷墟,此后,考古學家和他發掘的遺址天各一方,路途迢迢。身不能回大陸的李濟,晚年心中是否牽掛殷墟?隔海相望殷墟,心中是怎樣一番滋味? 這些問題,由于長期的兩岸阻隔,甚至連李光謨也無法回答,但他說:“1977年,李濟生前最后一本著作是《安陽》,可見殷墟在他心中的位置。”

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