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        1. 《竹書紀年》與《史記》有哪些不同的地方?《竹書紀年》在當今史學界的地位如何?

            《竹書紀年》對史學界的震撼,在于它所紀錄的史料與《史記》所描述的不單只內容不同,而且價值取向相異。竹書紀年描述了從夏朝到戰國時期歷代所發生的血腥政變和軍事沖突,根據《史記》所記載,商朝太甲伊尹囚禁3年后,伊尹見太甲改過自新,便鄭重的將國家交給他。太甲復位后,沉痛接受教訓,成為了一個勤政愛民、勵精圖治的圣君。不過,《竹書紀年》對此卻有不同的描述:伊尹放逐太甲后,自立為王,7年后,太甲潛回殺掉篡位的伊尹,并改立伊尹的兒子伊陟和伊奮繼承伊家。杜預說“此為大與《尚書》敘說大甲事乖異,不知老叟之伏生,或致昏忘,將此古書亦當時雜記,未足以取審也。”

          image.png

            竹書紀年早在漢代時就已經散佚。279年的西晉,一個位于今日河南省的魏王墓被盜挖,盜墓者被捕之余,亦同時讓墓里的大批竹簡出土。當時國家對這件事情非常重視,晉武帝命令中書監荀勖、中書令和嶠負責翻譯竹簡(因為魏國文字和秦國的小篆差異頗大),竹簡長度為古尺二尺四寸,每簡四十字,凡十三篇,起于黃帝[4],周平王東遷后用晉國紀年,戰國時期三家分晉后用魏國紀年。期間又遇上八王之亂等多次政治紛擾,秘書丞衛恒在從事“考正”時際被殺,使整理的進度大受打擊,由衛恒的好友佐著作郎束皙續成。最后負責官員把史書紀錄的部份整理好,并將之命名為《竹書紀年》。《竹書紀年》多記晉國與魏國之事,一般將此書看成是魏國的史書。

            由于《史記》采用紀傳體來記述事件,竹書紀年的出現,可以從另一角度審視史記內容,如“夏伯益”、“太甲殺伊尹”、“文丁殺季歷”、“共伯和干王位”,與史書有極大差異。又如《竹書紀年》記載:“懿王元年,天再旦于鄭……”,可能是指公元前899年4月21日,鄭(今天的陜西鳳翔或華縣)地區清晨時發生的日全蝕,可據此推定周懿王元年的真實年份(也有學者對這個說法存疑)。王國維在《今本竹書紀年疏證》中指出今本紀年中的周幽王六年(前776年)日食出自《詩經·小雅》“十月”和《新唐書·歷志》“大衍歷議日食”,本是周代的無年代日食紀錄和唐代以前的計算結果。

            記載

            《晉書·卷五十一列傳第二十一·束皙》:

            初,太康二年,汲郡人不準盜發魏襄王墓,或言安釐王冢,得竹書數十車。其《紀年》十三篇,記夏以來至周幽王為犬戎所滅,以事接之,三家分,仍述魏事至安釐王之二十年。蓋魏國之史書,大略與《春秋》皆多相應。

            其中經傳大異,則云夏年多殷;益干啟位,啟殺之;太甲殺伊尹;文丁殺季歷;自周受命,至穆王百年,非穆王壽百歲也;幽王既亡,有共伯和者攝行天子事,非二相共和也。

            其《易經》二篇,與《周易》上下經同。《易繇陰陽卦》二篇,與《周易》略同,《繇辭》則異。《卦下易經》一篇,似《說卦》而異。《公孫段》二篇,公孫段與邵陟論《易》。《國語》三篇,言楚、晉事。《名》三篇,似《禮記》,又似《爾雅》、《論語》。《師春》一篇,書《左傳》諸卜筮,“師春”似是造書者姓名也。《瑣語》十一篇,諸國卜夢妖怪相書也。《梁丘藏》一篇,先敘魏之世數,次言丘藏金玉事。《繳書》二篇,論弋射法。《生封》一篇,帝王所封。《大歷》二篇,鄒子談天類也。《穆天子傳》五篇,言周穆王游行四海,見帝臺、西王母。《圖詩》一篇,畫贊之屬也。又雜書十九篇:《周食田法》,《周書》,《論楚事》,《周穆王美人盛姬死事》。大凡七十五篇,七篇簡書折壞,不識名題。

            冢中又得銅劍一枚,長二尺五寸。漆書皆科斗字。初發冢者燒策照取寶物,及官收之,多燼簡斷札,文既殘缺,不復詮次。武帝以其書付秘書校綴次第,尋考指歸,而以今文寫之。皙在著作,得觀竹書,隨疑分釋,皆有義證。遷尚書郎。

          image.png

            附一《束皙其人》:

            束皙:晉代學者,“二十四史”之一《晉書》的《帝紀》就是出自他的手筆。據載,他是當時多聞博識而精于古文的學者,他生性恬淡,不慕名利,曾作《玄據釋》以擬《客難》,從不拿學問作為爭取榮華富貴的工具。因此,其學術造詣頗深,他撰寫的《七代通志》、《三魏人士傳》、《五經通論》、《發蒙記》等韉著作,均被后世學者推崇備至

            附二《束姓來歷》:

            從《晉書·束皙傳》記載考證,束姓是西漢高士漢疏廣是后裔。王莽末年,疏廣的曾孫孟達,對王莽篡政不滿,莽“立新”后,孟達避難逃至東海沙鹿山,改姓束,自此出現了束姓。望族居南陽郡(今河南南陽縣)。束姓名人還有:宋代有樞密都承旨束嘉,元代有畫家束宗庚,明代有清官萬載縣令束清。

            附三《湯餅賦》:

            晉代束皙的文章《湯餅賦》曰:“玄冬猛寒,清晨之會,涕凍鼻中,霜凝口外。充虛解戰,湯餅為最。弱似春綿,白若秋練。氣勃郁以揚布,香氣散而遠遍。行人失涎于下風,童仆空瞧而斜眄。擎器者舐唇,立侍者干咽”。

            湯餅,如今叫面條。漢劉用《釋名》說:“餅,并也,溲面使合并也。蒸制者日“蒸餅”,煮制者日“湯餅”或“煮餅”,炸制者日“油餅”,還有一種從西城引進的烤制餅,稱胡餅。至晉時,湯餅已有成細條狀的了。束皙之《講賦》中描述下湯餅的情景:“于是火盛湯涌,猛氣蒸作,振衣振裳。握〔溺字換成提手邊〕拊搏,面彌高于指端,手索遇而交錯,紛紛駁駁,星分雹落。”束皙稱湯餅“弱如春綿,白若秋練”。后庚闡《惡餅賦》有“王孫駭嘆于曳緒,束子賦弱于春綿”之句,傅玄《七謨》有“乃有三牲之和羹,蕤賓之時面。忽游水而長引,進飛羽之薄衍,細如蜀繭之緒,靡如魯縞之線”之說細如蜀繭之緒,靡如曾縞之線,實在已經很細了。

          image.png

            經過

            西晉初年,河南省汲縣發生了一件大事,一個叫不準(音讀“否標”)的盜墓賊,偷偷地掘開一座古墓。墓穴被打開后,由于墓中漆黑,不便尋找隨葬品,他滿地一劃拉,摸得一把竹片。點著竹片用來照取寶物,并沒像他所期待地那樣發現金銀財寶,呈現在眼前的是成片成捆的竹片,不準大失所望,因為對他來說這些東西毫無用處。他在失望之余,非常不甘心,于是,將竹片翻個底朝天,把一些值錢的物品拿了,隨手將竹片扔了。

            村民們看到被打開的古墓和散落的竹片,便告知官府。來了幾個官員,看到竹片大小一樣,上面有字,字跡整齊,數量巨大。于是把竹片拾掇到一起,裝了幾車運走。誰知這幾車竹片,揭開了中國歷史上驚世駭俗、驚天動地一件大事。這就是《汲冢書》《竹書紀年》。

            這批竹簡由汲縣運到京師洛陽,晉武帝命中書監荀勗、中書令和嶠負責整理。竹簡長度為古尺二尺四寸,以墨書寫(或作漆書,亦即墨書),每簡40字。對竹簡文字當時說法不同,一說為“小篆”,一說為“科斗文字”,一說為“古文”,應是一種較為規范的戰國文字。整理工作首先是排比竹簡的次第,其次是用當時的文字寫出釋文,最后是撰著提要。通過對竹簡的研究,人們發現,原來盜墓賊挖開的墓是戰國時代魏王冢,帶字的竹片竟是前所未知的典籍,因它是汲郡人不準在盜墓冢時發現,故這批竹簡被稱為汲冢書。《竹書紀年》是《汲冢書》中價值最大的史料。

            西晉一流的學者們整理了汲冢書,其中居然就發現了魏國的史書,這部再現于世的珍貴史書被稱為《竹書紀年》。起名《竹書紀年》當然也有它自己的道理。原來古時無紙,著書立說,破竹刮平為簡。字寫在竹簡上。多簡編為一書,所以叫竹書。紀年是將史事按年編次,成為史書一種體裁。此所謂“竹書紀年”就是表明它是一部史書。

            雖然大家一致確認,汲冢書是由于盜墓被發現,但是關于汲冢書出土時間史學界一直有爭議。一種說法是咸寧五年(279),這一說法以《晉書·武帝紀》為代表,《汗簡·略敘》、張懷《書斷》也持此說。

            另一種說法是太康元年(280),最早有這一說法的是當時的大學者杜預的《春秋經傳集解后序》,孔穎達疏引王隱《晉書》也贊同這種觀點。《北堂書鈔》卷101引王隱《晉書》、今本《晉書·衛恒傳》《晉書·律歷志》以及《隋書·經籍志》也都是這種觀點。

            還有一種說法是太康二年(281),主持整理汲冢書的荀勖在為另一本汲冢出的書《穆天子傳》寫的《序》中發表過這種看法,《晉書·束皙傳》《太平御覽》也都對這種觀點表示支持。另外,太康十年汲令范陽盧無忌立石的《齊大公呂望碑》也是這樣說的。

            太康初年說則較為可信。情況很可能是太康元年不準盜掘了汲冢,而汲冢書上繳官府則在太康二年。

          image.png

            遺址

            在河南省新鄉市汲縣縣城(現衛輝市)西南10公里,孫杏村鄉娘娘廟(村)南,另一說法在輝縣市西南贊城鎮大梁冢村(大梁冢即魏安釐王墓)。因墓地在汲得名(汲縣古稱汲郡)。為戰國時墓冢。共七處(自東到西按天、地、五行編號)。西晉太康兩年(公元281年),汲郡人不準盜發魏襄王墓(或言安釐王冢)3號“金”字墓,得竹書數十車,經束晳整編出《竹書紀年》一書,是中國最早(學術界一直有爭論)的一部編年體史書,曾為中國文化史四大發現之一。為縣級文物保護單位。

            至于汲冢墓主是誰?同樣存在不同說法。晉代汲郡,如今的河南汲縣西南,戰國時是魏的封地。根據《晉書·武帝紀》、《律歷志》、荀勖《穆天子傳序》、衛恒《四體書勢》,魏襄王是墓主。而王隱《晉書束皙傳》則認為墓主當是魏安厘王。直到現在,這個問題依然還沒有明確的結論

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