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        1. 日軍“名將之花”阿部規秀是被什么神奇擊斃的?

            阿部規秀是中國抗戰史上第一個被擊斃的日軍中將級別高級將領。

            1939年深秋的一個午后,晉察冀根據地淶源縣黃土嶺,日軍進入八路軍的伏擊圈。八路軍發現,離小山頭100米左右的獨立小院是敵人的指揮所。當即迅速調炮兵連上山,4發炮彈在日軍指揮所和觀察哨兩處目標點爆炸。不久日本《朝日新聞》以“名將之花凋謝在太行山上”的通欄標題,連續3天刊登悼念文章,特派員詳報中說:“……敵人一發炮彈突然飛至身旁爆炸,阿部中將右腹部及雙腿數處負傷……”

            擊斃阿部規秀的是什么武器呢?一門閻錫山山西太原兵工廠生產的75毫米口徑迫擊炮!它為與駁殼槍、地雷被稱為游擊抗日“三大神器”!

          image.png

            如今在北京軍事博物館眾多館藏重器中,一門并不高大威猛的迫擊炮,獨占一方醒目的展柜。有人說,它是八路軍首個兵工廠出品,“根正苗紅”,也有人說,它是從日軍手中繳獲的戰利品;有人說,它是中國最常見的82毫米口徑,也有人說它是稀有的75毫米口徑;有人也有人說它堪稱專瞄日寇將領的“斬首利器”……

            從該炮的型號看,屬于一戰之后斯托克斯樣式,它在中國的生產時間大約在1923年后至1930年前后。由于該炮生產的質量和工藝非常好,可以判定應出自于實力雄厚的大型兵工廠。

          image.png

            在抗日戰爭和解放戰爭史上,20式82毫米迫擊炮在中國軍隊中使用歷史悠久也最為常見。然而擊斃阿部規秀的迫擊炮卻是并不常見的75毫米口徑。

            在上世紀二三十年代,中國生產75毫米迫擊炮的廠家主要是漢陽兵工廠和太原兵工廠。漢陽兵工廠1923年就已經成功制成75毫米迫擊炮。

            擊斃阿部規秀的迫擊炮炮管長度達到135厘米,約是口徑的18倍,這在迫擊炮中屬于非常大的倍數了,應該是為了打得更高或更遠。在1950年印制的華北軍區《彈藥識別》一書中有“晉75迫擊炮對空榴彈,別名高射迫擊炮彈”的記錄。

          image.png

            從該炮的使用地域看,是晉察冀根據地。從當初國共合作抗日看,山西的閻錫山支援過我軍部分過時的老舊武器。

            我軍也繳獲許多日偽軍的一些武器。因為這門炮做工精細,而且炮身的方向機上用皮裹著。在武器上裹皮是日軍武器的一大特點,因而有人認為該炮是從侵華日軍繳獲的。但在權威資料佐山二郎所著《迫擊炮》一書,對各種炮都介紹得非常詳細,卻唯獨沒有這種75毫米炮。

          image.png

            那為什么會有人熱心地為它貼上黃崖洞兵工廠出品的標簽呢?位于山西省深山中的黃崖洞兵工廠是八路軍在血與火的拼殺中發展起來的第一家“紅色兵工廠”,也是當時唯一一家小型火炮生產工廠。不過,該廠是1939年年底才建成開工,到八路軍正規部隊配裝自己生產的“紅色迫擊炮”已經是1941年。

            將擊斃阿部規秀的迫擊炮劃入我軍自制的“紅一代”兵器,只不過是人們主觀加載在這件“國寶”身上的一種愿想。

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