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        1. 遼沈、淮海和平津三大戰役,哪個最慘烈?
          趣歷史 2018-10-17 14:36:31

            解放戰爭中規模大、殲敵多的大決戰,自然是遼沈、淮海和平津三大戰役。但是,若問三大戰役中哪次規模最大、殲敵最多、戰況最激烈,則是1948年11月6日至1949年1月10日的淮海戰役

            戰前,蔣介石聲稱:徐蚌會戰是政權“存亡最大之關鍵”。

            戰前,毛澤東兩次發電報給華東野戰軍,說準備以10萬到20萬人的傷亡代價,去奪取決戰的勝利。陳毅、粟裕等人后稱毛澤東:“為推翻蔣家王朝,他下了最大的決心。”

          image.png

            這次戰役,雙方投入正規軍兵力超過150萬,規模之大,參戰兵力之多為歷史之巨。

            解放軍有60萬正規軍,主要部隊有:華東野戰軍全部主力15個縱隊和1個特種兵縱隊,第35軍(吳化文部),華東軍區地方部隊,中原野戰軍全部主力7個縱隊和中原軍區地方部隊等。

            國民黨有80萬正規軍,主要參戰部隊有:國民黨軍徐州“剿總”司令部、前進指揮部,第2兵團5個軍、第6兵團4個軍、第7兵團5個軍、第8兵團2個軍、第12兵團4個軍、第13兵團3 個軍、第16兵團2個軍,第1綏靖區5個軍、第3綏靖區4個軍等。

            淮海戰役的進行難度之大,戰斗之激烈,超出解放戰爭的所有戰役。這次決戰是蔣介石全力、拼力之戰,但是華東野戰軍更為強悍、兇猛,其打惡仗、硬仗、大仗的戰術、戰略水平之高,達到了解放戰爭的高峰。

            經過66天的較量,國民黨軍傷亡及被俘55萬,解放軍傷亡僅華野就十余萬。解放軍共殲滅敵徐州“剿總”前進指揮部、5個兵團部、22個軍部、56個師共計55.5萬余人。這些部隊大多是蔣嫡糸部隊,看家部隊,裝備最為精良,戰斗力最強。解放軍在兵力裝備上都處于劣勢的情形下以少勝多,殲敵數量,遠超二戰中蘇軍進行的莫斯科會戰和庫爾斯特會戰。

          image.png

            這次戰役的勝利,解放軍基本殲滅了蔣介石的南線精銳部隊,解放了華東、中原廣大地區,使敵長江防線和統治中心南京、上海都處于我軍的直接威脅之下,成為取得解放戰爭決定性勝利的關鍵一仗。此后,國軍再無力與共軍主力決戰。

            國民黨軍統帥部在戰后檢討中,不得不承認:“國軍遭受之失敗,影響全局,最為重大,尤其是華東地區。”

            美國駐華軍事顧問團團長巴達維將軍在給美國陸軍部的報告中說:“由于國民黨政府在長江以北的失敗所造成的恥辱,縱令時間容許,國民黨政府是否能在華南取得必要的支持,動員這一地區的人力,以重建其軍隊,實屬極端令人懷疑。國民黨的完全失敗,已是不可避免。”

          image.png

            美國駐華大使司徒雷登則認為:“蔣介石的軍事力量實際上是崩潰了。”

            這個勝利的的直接影響是:三日之后,蔣介石宣布下野引退,即相當于“引咎辭職”。

            同一日,毛澤東宣布:“現在,人民解放軍無論在數量上士氣上和裝備上均優于國民黨反動派政府的殘余軍事力量。至此,中國人民才開始吐了一口氣。現在情況很明顯,只要解放軍向殘余的國民黨軍再作若干次重大攻擊,國民黨統治即將土崩瓦解,歸于消亡。”

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