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        1. 十大抗日戰役之一——“淞滬會戰”為何失敗?

            淞滬會戰(1937年8月13日—11月12日),又稱八一三戰役,是抗日的第一場大型會戰,也是抗日14年中規模最大、戰斗最慘烈的,中國軍隊參戰人數共80萬(傷亡30萬),日軍參戰人數共30萬(傷亡4萬)。這場戰役是由中國軍隊率先挑起戰火的,且在人數上絕對碾壓日軍,但為什么還會慘敗呢?

            1937年7月7日,日軍制造盧溝橋事變,揚言3個月滅亡中國。為了有利于中國軍隊的長期作戰,蔣介石準備發起淞滬會戰,把日軍由北向南的入侵方向改為由東向西,于是命令第9集團軍總司令張治中在8月13日向日本駐滬海軍陸戰隊的虹口基地發起圍攻,試圖將日軍趕到海上,淞滬會戰由此拉開。

          image.png

            戰爭爆發,中國軍隊對上海市區的日軍發動全面進攻,同時出動空軍,轟炸日海軍陸戰隊司令部、匯山碼頭及海面艦艇。一開始攻擊重點是日軍的虹口基地,后轉向公大紗廠。

            淞滬會戰開始時,中國軍隊有絕對的優勢,除2個精銳師外(一個師1—2萬人),還有2個裝備德國火炮的重炮團以及坦克、空軍助戰,而當時日軍在上海的海軍陸戰隊只有3000多人,按理說應該很快就能趕走日軍。但是日軍依靠堅固的防御工事頑強抵抗,致使中國軍隊一直無法取得重大突破。而且經過數日苦戰之后,蔣介石陷入了對列強(指在同一時期內瓜分世界、在世界范圍內擁有殖民地的各個帝國主義強國)的幻想當中,幻想列強能干涉中日戰爭,并在列強的干涉下停戰,進而挫敗日軍對華北的野心。這個幻想使得中國軍隊的作戰有所松懈,給日軍贏得了增兵的機會,此后雙方都不斷往上海增加兵力,兩軍持續激戰。

            10月20日,日軍秘密組建第10軍,準備對中國軍隊實行大包圍;11月5日,日軍第10軍8萬人在金山衛登陸,蔣介石因幻想列強的干涉,延誤了撤退時機,等到蔣介石醒悟過來,已失去了最佳撤退時機,11月8日晚,蔣介石下令進行全面撤退,所有部隊撤出上海,分兩路退向南京、蘇州嘉興以西地區。由于命令倉促,指揮失控,40萬左右的中國將士擠在幾條公路上,被日軍空軍轟炸,大撤退變成了大潰逃,數十萬將士在撤往南京時分散,為南京保衛戰的失利埋下伏筆。11月12日,上海市長俞鴻鈞發表告市民書,沉痛宣告遠東第一大都市——上海淪陷。

            此次戰役是中國軍隊第一次軍種(空軍、海軍、陸軍)和諸兵種(步兵、炮兵、坦克)大規模的協同作戰,但協同效果很差:步兵逼坦克沖鋒又不予以掩護,結果坦克被日軍全部擊毀;步兵失去坦克掩護后攻堅傷亡慘重,甚至出現一個營部隊擠在一條街內被日軍堵住街口全部擊斃的悲劇。

            所以,淞滬會戰失敗的原因有:日軍防御工事堅固、蔣介石對列強抱有幻想導致指揮失當以及中國軍隊協同作戰能力差。

            不過,淞滬會戰中國軍隊雖然失敗了,但在我軍殊死拼搏的奮戰下,對日軍的戰斗力也造成了比較大的破壞,從而徹底粉碎了日本3個月滅亡中國的計劃。

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