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        1. 中國古代為什么會有丞相和宰相兩種說法,這其中有什么不同嗎
          趣歷史 2018-04-11 10:02:44

            總體來說,宰相是個制度,丞相是個實質的官名,宰相制度起于春秋時期,完結于明代,明代廢除宰相制度以后形成了“內閣”(文淵閣處在宮內,故名內閣)制度,清承明制,無名義上的宰相制度。

            歷代宰相制度介紹:宰相最早起源于春秋時期。管仲就是中國歷史上第一位杰出的宰相。到了戰國時期,宰相的職位在各個諸侯國都建立了起來。

          image.png

            秦朝時,宰相的正式官名為丞相。有時分設左右,以右為上,稱為“右丞相”,“左丞相”,宦官擔任宰相職務的稱為“中丞相”。

            漢朝與秦朝相仿,只是如果稱為相國的話地位更高一些,并以御史大夫為副職。漢武帝時,起用了一批儒生當丞相,處理日常行政事務,而政務中心則轉到了內廷。宰相的職權逐漸轉移到了尚書臺長官的手中。漢哀帝改丞相為大司徒,東漢由司徒、司空、太尉共同執政。漢獻帝時,復置丞相,由曹操擔任。

            魏晉南北朝時,丞相或相國多為權臣自命,成為了一種篡位奪權的手段。南北朝制度多變,皇帝所與議論政事或委以機密者,即是宰相,官名有中書監、中書令、侍中、尚書令、仆射或將軍。其位最尊、權最大者則為錄尚書事。

            隋朝定三省制,三省長官內史省的內史令、門下省的納言、尚書省的尚書令都是宰相。唐改內史省為中書省,內史令為中書令,納言為侍中。唐高宗后,只有加“同中書門下三品”、“同中書門下平章事”者才是宰相。

            宋朝以同平章事為宰相正式官名,以知政事為副。從漢至唐,皇帝待宰相之禮,逐漸降級,至宋太祖廢“坐論”之禮,使宰相地位大降。元豐改制,設宰相二人,首相稱尚書左仆射兼門下侍郎,次相稱尚書右仆射兼門下侍郎;另設門下侍郎、中書侍郎、尚書左右丞為副相。政和時,改左仆射為太宰兼門下侍郎,右仆射為少宰兼中書侍郎。建炎間,再改宰相官名為尚書左右仆射同中書門下平章事,副相為參知政事。干道間又改為左、右丞相。

          image.png

            元朝以中書省為政務中樞,主官中書令常由皇太子兼領,下為左右丞相,再下為平章政事,副職為左右丞及參知政事。

            明朝初亦設中書省,左右丞相。洪武十三年(1380年),罷中書省,廢丞相,由皇帝親決國政。宰相制度遂廢。后皇帝以不勝庶政之繁,設內閣大學士協理文書。后閣職漸重,大學士成為事實上的宰相,稱輔臣,居首者為首輔。

            清沿明制,雍正時設軍機處,內閣成為閑曹,軍機大臣成為事實上的宰相。明、清習慣上都稱授大學士為拜相,但無正式宰相名份。


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