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        1. 開盤、出局、開方子、掉頭、跳槽,這五個詞是從哪里誕生的?
          趣歷史 2018-02-27 11:30:54

            妓院的行話,最為龐雜。為了活命,青樓妓女不得不見人說人話、見鬼說鬼話,在達官顯貴、軍警憲特、流氓小偷、地痞無賴這些三教九流中悉心周旋。盡管妓院是一口大染缸,很多富有特殊意義的專用詞匯,卻保留下來,直到現在,還流行在街頭巷尾。當然,意思整個兒變了。

            (一)開盤

            現代都市人再熟悉不過了,房地產廣告漫天飛,今天這兒封頂,明天那兒開盤;殊不知,“開盤”這個詞,早就滿身脂粉氣。在舊時妓院里,“開盤”指客人讓妓女陪著聊天、唱曲,不包括其他不堪入目的內容,頗似時下陪聊、陪唱的歌廳小姐。民國時期,胡適陳獨秀等高收入的社會名流,時常閑聚“開盤”。

          be5ca3404532411dbc2a32d3f2883a93.jpeg

            (二)出局

            出局,今指被淘汰,從圈兒里被揣到圈兒外,這種事兒比比皆是,沒什么不好意思。可是,它的前身卻不光彩,專指嫖客花錢,把妓女接出妓院,送到自己家里或者其他隱秘的地方過夜。著名的“情種詩人”徐志摩,樂于請朋友喝“花酒”,叫妓女“出局”。這在清末民初期間,算是上流社會的社會方式,如果妻子不是“醋壇子或者“母老虎”,此類休閑娛樂活動是被默許的。

          7587a2e71e8b4e3bbbb8e4c47910cd06.jpeg

            (三)開方子

            開方子,字面意思很容易理解。現在是醫生為病人診病后對癥下藥開出藥方,或者出主意、指路子。原意非常干凈,引進妓院以后,便徹底脫胎換骨了。“開方子”指妓女審時度勢察言觀色,詳裝可憐以各種借口相嫖客敲詐的手段。汪仲賢《上海俗語圖說》:“未開方子以前,須先借因頭,以作發端。或假裝病痛,或愁眉緊蹙,或故意罵人,或暗地啜泣……嫖客見之,定要詢問根源復須羞怯怯地,不肯明言,等他再三相逼,才不得已而吞吞吐吐地說將出來,嫖客一拍胸脯,方子已收功效。”

            (四)調頭

            調頭,說白了就是“回彎兒”,聽起來沒什么怪味兒。細究起來,這個詞卻是舊上海的妓院行話。指妓女從原來的妓院轉到另一妓院中營業,這很像現代人換單位。當時,妓女的身體屬于妓院,從八九歲調教成名重一時的“花魁”,當然要花很多錢。馬上掙錢了,竟要活活地挪地方,想必,“調頭”遠比計劃經濟時代的“農轉非”、“工轉干”都艱難!

          28c3cf6ab34b49e9a9b611717df056ab.jpeg

            (五)跳槽

            跳槽,如今很時髦。現代社會競爭激烈,一旦工作被炒,自然要找其他活兒。“跳槽”之聲,不絕于耳,孰料,這個“臉兒熟”的詞匯,竟然也是舊上海的妓院行話。指嫖客丟棄原來的妓女另結新歡。清人徐珂的《清稗類鈔》中明確解釋說:“原指妓女而言,謂其琵琶別抱也。譬以馬就飲食,移就別槽耳。后則以言狎客,謂其去此適彼。”古代中國,良家婦女的地位很低,妓女簡直就是漂亮玩物,花錢買樂的嫖客,個個兒喜新厭舊。嫖客上妓院被比作“吃草”,玩到了“草色衰敗”那一天,失去新鮮感“馬(嫖客)”自然就得“跳槽”。諸如“調頭”、“跳槽”這些舊上海的妓院用語,頻繁地出現在清末韓邦慶所著的譴責小說《海上花列傳》里,足見其強大的社會影響力。


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